Socio-economic Impact of COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus SARS – CoV-2) in Thailand and India: A Brief Review


Meena Laiphrakpam Sayam Aroonsrimorakot Warit Paisantanakij


          COVID-19, scientifically called Novel Coronavirus SARS – CoV-2, which first emerged in a sea-food and live-animal market in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, at the end of December 2019, has infected above 2,480,000 persons in more than 200 countries worldwide, and the World Health Organization has announced coronavirus outbreak as a pandemic, which has become one of the biggest threats to mankind, with lots of socio-economic impacts globally. The authors present this article by reviewing documents and collecting relevant data from the beginning of the outbreak in January 2020 till July 15, 2021, in Thailand and India, from various kinds of electronic documents available on the daily internet media, social media, news, reports, and opinions related to COVID-19 outbreak. The article aims to find: 1) the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand and India, and 2) the comparison of its impact in Thailand and India. It is found that coronavirus disease has impacted both Thailand and India’s socio-economy through several channels, including impact on the economy, unemployment and poverty, education, health, tourism, and travel, creating chaos, disaster, risk perception, and management, panic, racism, and social stigma. The article is concluded by presenting the comparative socio-economic impact between the two countries, which is considered to be relevant to policymakers of each country, to be prepared for a future pandemic disease outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19, Socio-economic Impact, Pandemic, Coronavirus, Thailand, India


Babushahi Bureau. (2020, April 21). A Burial that was not: Chennai Doctor’s Last Rites See Attacks, Protest Amidst Coronavirus Fears. Retrieved from,-protest-amidst-coronavirus-fears

Bangkok Post. (2019). THAI Cancels All Europe Flights. Retrieved from

Bhattacharya, P., Banerjee, D., & Rao, T. S. (2020). The “Untold” Side of COVID-19: Social Stigma and Its Consequences in India. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 42(4), 382-386.

Biswas, S. (2020). Coronavirus: The Controversy Over ‘India’s First Virus Fatality’. Retrieved from

Buchholz, K. (2021). Indian GDP Returns to Pre-Coronavirus Levels. Retrieved from

Burton, J. (2020, April 4). British Businessman Jumps to his Death in Bangkok. Retrieved from

Business Insider India. (2020, April 14). Prime Minister Narendra Modi Extends Coronavirus Lockdown Until May 3. Retrieved from

BusinessToday. (2020, April 4). Coronavirus: India’s GDP Growth May Fall Below 3% if Lockdown Extends, Says KPMG Report. Retrieved from

Chaudhary, M., Sodani, P. R., & Das, S. (2020). Effect of COVID-19 on Economy in India: Some Reflections for Policy and Programme. Journal of Health Management, 22(2), 169-180.

Choudhari, R. (2020). COVID 19 Pandemic: Mental Health Challenges of Internal Migrant Workers of India. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 102254.

Coconuts Bangkok. (2020, April 23). At Breaking Point, Thailand’s Poor are Killing Themselves. Retrieved from

Deloitte. (2020). Respond, Recover, Thrive: The Impact of COVID-19 on the Economy. Retrieved from

Dev, S. M., & Sengupta, R. (2020). Covid-19: Impact on the Indian Economy (Working Paper). Mumbai: Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research. Retrieved from

Drosten, C., Günther, S., Preiser, W., van der Werf, S., Brodt, H.-R., Becker, S., … Doerr, H. W. (2003). Identification of a Novel Coronavirus in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348(20), 1967-1976.

Dsouza, D. D., Quadros, S., Hyderabadwala, Z. J., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Aggregated COVID-19 Suicide Incidences in India: Fear of COVID-19 Infection is the Prominent Causative Factor. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113145.

ET Now Digital. (2020, March 24). Estimated Loss for Indian Economy Slated to be $640 Million due to Coronavirus Crisis. Retrieved from

Hegarty, S. (2020, February 6). The Chinese Doctor who Tried to Warn others about Coronavirus. Retrieved from

Hindustan Times. (2020, March 12). India’s First Coronavirus Death is Confirmed in Karnataka. Retrieved from

Hossain, M. M., Purohit, N., Sharma, R., Bhattacharya, S., McKyer, E. L. J., & Ma, P. (2020). Suicide of a Farmer Amid COVID-19 in India: Perspectives on Social Determinants of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention Strategies. SocArXiv.

Hutasing, O., & Praprutitum, K. (2020, April 2). COVID-19 Impact on Airlines ‘Severe’: IATA. Retrieved from

Kapasia, N., Paul, P., Roy, A., Saha, J., Zaveri, A., Mallick, R., … Chouhan, P. (2020). Impact of Lockdown on Learning Status of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students during COVID-19 Pandemic in West Bengal, India. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, 105194.

Kapur, M. (2020, April 7). Charted: Lockdown is Only the Beginning of Misery for India’s Migrant Labourers. Retrieved from

Kelly, S. (2020a, April 6). Three Cousins Jump off Rama VIII Bridge in Covid-19-Related Pact. Retrieved from

Kelly, S. (2020b, April 13). Update: Thai Returnee from Indonesia Commits Suicide on Last Day of Quarantine. Retrieved from

Kochhar, A. S., Bhasin, R., Kochhar, G. K., Dadlani, H., Mehta, V. V., Kaur, R., & Bhasin, C. K. (2020). Lockdown of 1.3 Billion People in India during Covid-19 Pandemic: A Survey of its Impact on Mental Health. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 102213.

Krishnatray, P. (2020, May 12). COVID-19 is Leading to a New Wave of Social Stigma. Retrieved from

Languepin, O. (2020, April 10). 7 Million Jobs at Risk in Post-COVID-19 Thailand. Retrieved from

Leingchan, R. (2020, February 11). Coronavirus Outbreak: Impact on Thai Economy. Retrieved from

MCOT. (2020, March 26). Thailand under State of Emergency Bans Entry to Foreigners. Retrieved from

Ministry of Home Affairs. (2020). MHA Issues New Guidelines for Re-opening. Retrieved from

MOPH. (2020). Novel Coronavirus 2019 Pneumonia News Release. Retrieved from

M., S. K., V., M., J., P., M., P., P., J., P., S., … Jothikumar, R. (2020). Social Economic Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak in India. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, 16(4), 309-319.

Mukherjee, A., Bandopadhyay, G., & Chatterjee, S. S. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemic: Mental Health and Beyond–The Indian Perspective. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 38(2), 140-144.

Muthukrishnan, M. (2020, April 3). COVID-19 and its Impact on Indian Economy. Retrieved from

Neilson, S., & Woodward, A. (2020, December 25). A Comprehensive Timeline of the Coronavirus Pandemic at 1 Year, from China’s First Case to the Present. Retrieved from

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., … Agha, R. (2020). The Socio-economic Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): A Review. International Journal of Surgery, 78, 185-193.

Nilima, N., Kaushik, S., Tiwary, B., & Pandey, P. K. (2021). Psycho-social Factors Associated with the Nationwide Lockdown in India during COVID-19 Pandemic. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 9, 47-52.

Our World in Data. (n.d.). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations. Retrieved from

Paweewun, O. (2020, April 16). IMF: Thai GDP Down 6.7%. Retrieved from

Phongphaew, P. (2021, January 20). Thailand: Growth in Jobs Critical for Sustained COVID-19 Recovery. The World Bank. Retrieved from

Rashir, P. G. (2020, April 15). Meghalaya Locals Disallow Burial, Cremation of 1st COVID19 Patient. Retrieved from

Rehman, U., Shahnawaz, M. G., Khan, N. H., Kharshiing, K. D., Khursheed, M., Gupta, K., … Uniyal, R. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Indians in Times of COVID-19 Lockdown. Community Mental Health Journal, 57, 42-48.

Reid, D. (2020, January 30). India Confirms its First Coronavirus Case. Retrieved from

RFI. (2020, May 14). Mental Illness, Suicides Rise in India during Covid-19 Crisis. Retrieved from

Rojanaphruk, P. (2020, April 5). Opinion: Thai Poor Face Either Death by Coronavirus, or Economic Ruin. Retrieved from

Roy, D., Tripathy, S., Kar, S. K., Sharma, N., Verma, S. K., & Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of Knowledge, Attitude, Anxiety & Perceived Mental Healthcare need in Indian Population during COVID-19 Pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102083.

Saha, T., & Bhattacharya, S. (2020). Consequence of Lockdown Amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Indian Agriculture. Food and Scientific Reports, 1(Special), 47-50.

Sharma, G. D., & Mahendru, M. (2020). Lives or Livelihood: Insights from Locked-down India due to COVID19. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2(1), 100036.

Sriring, O. (2020, November 26). Thailand Sees First Trickle of Tourists in October as Curbs Ease. Retrieved from

TAT Newsroom. (2020, December 31). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation in Thailand as of 31 December 2020, 11.30 Hrs. Retrieved from

Techakitteranun, H. (2020, April 4). Coronavirus: Thailand Suspends all Incoming Passenger Flights for 3 Days. Retrieved from

Thai PBS World. (2020, March 22). Thailand Reports 188 New COVID-19 Cases on Sunday. Retrieved from

The Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand (CAAT). (2020, April 6). The Notification of the Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand on Temporary Ban on All International Flights to Thailand (No. 2). Retrieved from

The Economic Times. (2020, March 12). Impact of Coronavirus on Indian Tourism could run into Thousands of Crores of Rupees. Retrieved from

The Hindu BusinessLine. (2020, April 2). Covid-19 Lockdown Estimated to Cost India $4.5 Billion a Day: Acuté Ratings. Retrieved from

The Nation Thailand. (2020a, April 3). Man Suspected of Committing Suicide after Contracting COVID-19. Retrieved from

The Nation Thailand. (2020b, April 20). Taxi Driver Kills Self after ‘Unjustly’ Rejected for Aid. Retrieved from

The Wire. (2020, March 30). 22 Migrant Workers, Kin Have Died Trying to Return Home Since the Lockdown Started. Retrieved from

The World Bank. (2020, June 30). Major Impact from COVID-19 to Thailand’s Economy, Vulnerable Households, Firms: Report. Retrieved from

The World Bank. (2021a, April 30). COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Response. Retrieved from

The World Bank. (2021b, July 15). Thailand Economic Monitor July 2021: The Road to Recovery. Retrieved from

Thirumurthy, P. (2020, April 20). How Dr. Simon, who Died of COVID-19 in Chennai, was Denied Dignity in Death. Retrieved from

Wasdani, K. P., & Prasad, A. (2020). The Impossibility of Social Distancing among the Urban Poor: The Case of an Indian Slum in the Times of COVID-19. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 25(5), 414-418.

Wikipedia. (n.d.a). COVID-19 Pandemic in India. Retrieved from

Wikipedia. (n.d.b). COVID-19 Pandemic in Thailand. Retrieved from

Worldometers. (n.d.). COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Retrieved from

Zhou, P., Yang, X.-L., Wang, X.-G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, W., … Shi, Z.-L. (2020). A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated with a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin. Nature, 579(7798), 270-273.

Review Articles


How to Cite
LAIPHRAKPAM, Meena; AROONSRIMORAKOT, Sayam; PAISANTANAKIJ, Warit. Socio-economic Impact of COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus SARS – CoV-2) in Thailand and India: A Brief Review. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences), [S.l.], v. 15, n. 2, p. 1-14, may 2022. ISSN 2985-0231. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 05 dec. 2023. doi: