Response surface methodology for evaluation of blanching effects on antioxidant capacity and physical quality of ground pork product treated with mulberry leaves
Although hot water blanching has an important effect on inactivating microorganisms, the antioxidant capacity of foods might be lost by this process. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the predictive response surface models (RSM) and their mathematical equations for monitoring the quality of ground pork incorporated with mulberry leaves (12.5 g/kg) during blanching. The temperatures and times were modelled to create RSM mathematical equations based on the alteration of each parameter, including pH, texture characteristics, color values (L*, a* and b*), and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that pH values and hardness were affected by the blanching temperature, while the b* was affected by the blanching times. In contrast, the stringiness, and L* and a* were not altered by any blanching factors. Following the antioxidant activity, the percentage of DPPH radical-scavenging activity increased with an increase in all blanching factors. Considering the normal probability plots of each parameter along with the verification of the assumption of ANOVA, these results indicated that their predictive equations could be a prototype of RSM models for predicting the alterable physical quality and antioxidant capacity of ground pork incorporated with mulberry leaves during blanching.
Keywords: Response surface model (RSM), Blanching effect, Ground pork product treated with mulberry leaves
Al-Juhaimi, F., Ghafoor, K., Özcan, M. M., Jahurul, M. H. A., Babiker, E. E., Jinap, S., ... & Zaidul, I. S. M. (2018). Effect of various food processing and handling methods on preservation of natural antioxidants in fruits and vegetables. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(10), 3872-3880.
Biswas, A. K., Chatli, M. K., & Sahoo, J. (2012). Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L.) and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage. Food Chemistry, 133(2), 467-472.
Bolek, S., & Ozdemir, M. (2017). Optimization of roasting conditions of microwave roasted Pistacia terebinthus beans. LWT, 86, 327-336.
Cui, H., Dong, Y., Lu, T., Zou, X., Wang, M., Yang, X., & Zhou, H. (2021). Effect of ethanolic extract from Morus alba L. leaves on the quality and sensory aspects of chilled pork under retail conditions. Meat Science, 172, 108368.
Cui, H., Lu, T., Wang, M., Zou, X., Zhang, Y., Yang, X., ..., & Zhou, H. (2019). Flavonoids from Morus alba L. leaves: Optimization of extraction by response surface methodology and comprehensive evaluation of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibition of α-amylase activities through analytical hierarchy process. Molecules, 24(13), 2398.
Dai, Y., Lu, Y., Wu, W., Lu, X. M., Han, Z. P., Liu, Y., ..., & Dai, R. T. (2014). Changes in oxidation, color and texture deteriorations during refrigerated storage of ohmically and water bath-cooked pork meat. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 26, 341-346.
Deng, L. Z., Mujumdar, A. S., Zhang, Q., Yang, X. H., Wang, J., Zheng, Z. A., ..., & Xiao, H. W. (2019). Chemical and physical pretreatments of fruits and vegetables: Effects on drying characteristics and quality attributes–a comprehensive review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 59(9), 1408-1432.
Gasaluck, P., & Mahidsanan, T. (2018). The consequences of implicit factors as cross-protective stresses on freeze-dried Bacillus subtilis SB-MYP-1 with soybean flour during storage. LWT, 90, 475-482.
Magra, T. I., Bloukas, J. G., & Fista, G. A. 2006. Effect of frozen and dried leek on processing and quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages. Meat science, 72(2), 280-287.
Murphy, R. Y., & Marks, B. P. (2000). Effect of meat temperature on proteins, texture, and cook loss for ground chicken breast patties. Poultry science, 79(1), 99-104.
Nayak, B., Liu, R. H., & Tang, J. (2015). Effect of processing on phenolic antioxidants of fruits, vegetables, and grains—a review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 55(7), 887-918.
Sojic, B., Tomovic, V., Kocic-Tanackov, S., Kovacevic, D. B., Putnik, P., Mrkonjic, Z., ..., & Pavlic, B. (2020). Supercritical extracts of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) by-product as natural antioxidants in ground pork patties. LWT, 130, 109661.
Valinger, D., Gajdoš Kljusurić, J., Bursać Kovačević, D., Putnik, P., & Režek Jambrak, A. (2020). Microorganisms and food products in food processing using full factorial design. USA: CRC Press. Mathematical and Statistical Applications in Food Engineering, 434.
Villalobos-Delgado, L. H., González-Mondragón, E. G., Govea, A. Y. S., Andrade, J. R., & Santiago-Castro, J. T. (2017). Potential application of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) as natural antioxidant in raw ground pork. LWT, 84, 306-313.
Yiga, V. A., Lubwama, M., Pagel, S., Olupot, P. W., Benz, J., & Bonten, C. (2021). Optimization of tensile strength of PLA/clay/rice husk composites using Box-Behnken design. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1-27.
Yu, T. Y., Morton, J. D., Clerens, S., & Dyer, J. M. (2017). Cooking-induced protein modifications in meat. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16(1), 141-159.
Zhang, X., Li, D., Meng, Q., He, C., & Ren, L. (2016). Effect of mulberry leaf extracts on color, lipid oxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative breakdown products of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Quality, 39(3), 159-170.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.