Efficiency of Smart Farm System on Enhancement of Pepper Production


Tawatchai Madato Wanida Petlamul Kuntapon Mahamad


This research presents the Smart Farm System (SFS), networked with the Internet of Things, and its positive impact on the yield and productivity of a pepper crop. The SFS was designed and developed using an ESP32 microcontroller board connected to a BME280 spraying system and also to an SHT10 sprinkler system. The SFS operates continuously and accurately according to set parameters, with the spraying system operating based on temperature and humidity parameters when the temperature is greater than 30 °C and the humidity is less than 80 %RH, and the sprinkler system operating according to soil moisture parameters, when the soil moisture is less than 70%. The results show that, in the comparison of pepper yield of the crops watered under the control of the SFS, for both the spraying systems and the sprinkler system, and a crop watered under the usual general watering process, the mean values of pepper crop yield weights were significantly higher for the SFS-controlled systems. Compared to general watering, the pepper yield weight from the spraying system increased by 49.97% and 24.97% from the sprinkler system. The pepper quality values of average bunch length, bunch diameter, and pepper seed size from both the crop watered by the spraying system and the sprinkler system were all significantly higher than those obtained from the general watering process. User satisfaction with the automated systems for convenience of use, user interface and application, clarity of the instruction manual, material requirements and structure of the devices was high as was the confidence that the systems could generate higher productivity from the pepper.

Keywords: Smart farm system, Internet of Things, Temperature, Humidity, Soil moisture, Pepper


Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: A survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2787–2805.
Bagheri, H., Abdul Manap, M. Y. B., & Solati, Z. (2014). Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction and hydro-distillation. Talanta, 121, 220-228.
Bukhari, I. A., Pivac, N., Alhumayyd, M. S., Mahesar, A. L., Gilani, A. H. (2013). The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 64(6), 789-794.
Changthom, C. (2014). A textbook on the wisdom of pepper production in Chanthaburi. Chanthaburi: Great Unity Media Limited Partnership.
Chawapradit, P. (2014). Information on suitable environment for growth and yield of pepper. Office of Agricultural Product Promotion and Management Department of Agricultural Extension. Retrieved from http://www.agriman.doae.go.th/home/t.n/t.n1/5vagetable_Requirement/004_Pepper.pdf
Chonpathompikunlert, P., Wattanathorn, J., & Muchimapura, S. (2010). Piperine, the main alkaloid of Thai black pepper, protects against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in animal model of cognitive deficit like condition of Alzheimer's disease. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(3), 798-802.
De Souza Grinevicius, V. M. A., Kviecinski, M. R., Santos Mota, N. S. R., Ourique, F., Porfirio Will Castro, L. S. E., Andreguetti, R. R., … Pedrosa, R. C. (2016). Piper nigrum ethanolic extract rich in piperamides causes ROS overproduction, oxidative damage in DNA leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 189, 139-147.
Fletcher, K., Nyuak, A., & Yee, T. P. (2021). Ph monitoring for liquid fertilizer management in black pepper farming. International Journal of Innovation and Industrial Revolution, 3(6), 1-12.
Government Spokesperson Bureau, Secretariat of the Prime Minister. (2017). Thailand 4.0 driving the future towards security, prosperity, and sustainability. Thai Khu Fah Online Journal, 33, 1-43.
Jasungnuen, N. (2019, August 6). ESP32 Part 1 Get to know the board to learn IOTs first [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0T2p-A2LZg
Kandiannan, K., Parthasarathy, U., Krishnamurthy, K. S., Thankamani, C. K., Srinivasan, V., & Aipe, K. C. (2011). Modeling the association of weather and black pepper yield. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 68(1), 96-102.
Kandiannan, K., Krishnamurthy, K. S., Gowda, S. J. A., & Anandaraj, M. (2014). Climate change and black pepper production. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spicies and Medicinal Plants, 16(4), 31-37.
Kitsawang, P. (2016). Real-time alarming system of dangerous leakage current at distribution transformer via digital signal processing. The Journal of Industrial Technology, 12(3), 1-13.
Mahamad, K., Kongmon, A., Petlamul, M., Petlamul, W., & Chuwanich, S. (2020). Application of smart farm technology for pesticide residue-free vegetable fields system: A case study of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Songkhla. In S. Siwawat (Ed.), CreTech 2020 Multidisciplinary to drive economy and social: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on creative technology held in Grand Pacific Sovereign Resort and Spa Cha-am, Phetchaburi Province, Thailand, 5-7 August 2020 (pp. 39-46). Bangkok: Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep.
Mahamad, K., Mansuriwong, P., & Petlamul, W. (2021). Application of smart farm system to enhance phoenix oyster mushroom production. ASEAN Journal of Scientific and Technological Report, 24(3), 47-57.
Masa, N., Ledóné, H. D., & Komarek, L. (2021). Impact of precision monitoring system on vegetable cultivation in raral areas. Review on Agriculture and Rural Development, 10(1-2), 3-8.
Morelli, B., Howell, J., Watson, J., Lucero, S., Kanesin, Y., Kim, C., & Ratliff, L. (2018). In IoT trend watch 2018. London: IHS Markit.
Noonak, N., & Suesut, T. (2012). Measurement and Measuring Tools. Applications in the food industry. Bangkok: Faculty of Engineering King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang.
Nyuak, A., Kedung Fletcher, K., & Yee, T. P. (2019). Web based monitoring system for pepper farming. In MNNF Publisher, Leading towards creative & innovation: Proceedings of an international invention, innovative & creative (InIIC) conference 2019, 27 April 2019 (pp. 39-46). Malacca, Malaysia: MNNF Publisher.
Office of Agricultural Economics. (2020). Pepper: Number of growing households 2003-2020. Retrieved from http://www.oae.go.th/assets/portals/1/fileups/prcaidata/files/holdland%20pepper63.pdf
Palaphan, M. (2010). Cultivation of pepper. Bangkok: Thanat Printing.
Peng, Q., Liang, Y., Chen, C., Zhu, J., Wei, Z., Jia, W., & Wu, Y. (2010). Effects of soil moisture on growth and pepper fruit quality in greenhouse during fruiting stage. Journal of Northwest A & F University-Natural Science Edition, 38(1), 154-160.
Pettong, W., & Vongkrachang, S. (2020). The development of soil moisture control system based on wireless communication technology for Off-Season Durian production in Nopphitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Naresuan University Journal Science and Technology, 28(1), 38-48.
Ranokphanuwat, R. (2017). Greenhouse hydroponics automation system using IoT technology and deep learning tool. Journal of Information Science and Technology, 8(2), 74-82.
Shashwathi, N., Borkotoky, P., & Suhas, K. (2012). Smart farming: A step towards techno-savvy agriculture. International Journal of Computer Applications, 57(18), 45-48.
Srivastava, A. K., & Singh, V. K., (2017). Biological action of Piper nigrum – the king of spices, European Journal of Biological Research, 7, 223-233.
Siljaru, T., (2005). Research and Data Collection Statistic with SPSS and AMOS (4th ed.). Bangkok: V Inter Print.
Tasleem, F., Azhar, I., Ali, S. N., Perveen, S., & Mahmood, Z. A. (2014). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 7(1), S461-S468.
Singnan, T., & Vangkapun, W. (2016). Irrigation control with soil moisture sensor. In S. Saowakoon (Ed.), RSC 2016 Rajamangala Surin Conference: Proceedings of the 8th Rajamangala Surin National Conference held in Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Surin Campus, Surin Province, Thailand, 22-23 December 2016 (pp. A99-A106). Bangkok: Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Surin Campus.

Research Articles


How to Cite
MADATO, Tawatchai; PETLAMUL, Wanida; MAHAMAD, Kuntapon. Efficiency of Smart Farm System on Enhancement of Pepper Production. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 30, n. 4, p. 53-65, sep. 2022. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <https://www.journal.nu.ac.th/NUJST/article/view/Vol-30-No-4-2022-53-65>. Date accessed: 27 jan. 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2022.35.