The research work aims to investigate the performance and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine at a constant speed of 3,000 rpm over the load range. The engine is experimentally fueled with regular diesel blended with 5% ethyl ester from palm oil (PEE5) combining with 5% n-butanol and ethanol (up to 20%), in comparison with regular diesel baseline and PEE5. Results of the engine performance test show that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) from using PEE5 blended with 5% n-butanol and 5% ethanol increased by 0.22 and 0.31%, while the brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased by 0.86 and 1.23% compared to those of regular diesel and PEE5, respectively. Engine performances when running on PEE5 blended with 5% n-butanol and 10% ethanol were comparable to regular diesel fueling. However, the use of PEE5 blended with n-butanol and ethanol added from 15 to 20% led to the reduction of BTE by up to 1.13% and the increase in BSEC by up to 4.68%. The critical findings from the exhaust gas measurements identified that the use of PEE5 blending with n-butanol and ethanol increasing from 5 to 20% resulted in the abatement of exhaust emissions, especially carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and black smoke. The increasing concentration of oxygen and the decreasing molecules of carbon within the fuel composition led to the reduction of these emissions.
Keywords: engine performance, ethanol, exhaust emissions, n-butanol, PEE5
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