Sugar palm tree has been considered as a valuable multipurpose tree for several centuries for the production of food and construction materials that will produce income for rural communities. Sugar palm, also known as Palmyra palms, are economically useful and widely cultivated, especially in South –East Asia. The Palmyra palm tree has long been one of the most important trees of Cambodia and India. In Thailand, the sugar palm tree (Borassus flabellifer) plays an important role. It provides different products such as juice, sugar, leaves, timber, fruits, underground seedlings, and roots. As the sugar palm tree has a deep root system (up to 15 m), it can be used to control landslides or soil erosion on the river edge, if it is planted along the roadside or canal as Thailand has numerous canals, both natural and man-made, used for irrigation of agricultural cultivation and boat transportation, which was a major travel method in the past. Additionally, landslide along canals is a common problem in all regions of the country, a problem which the government needs to address with a huge budget for the construction of concrete fences to prevent that erosion. Therefore, this review aimed at describing the benefits of the root system of sugar palm tree, that can also be applied for the protection of landslide along the canals to promote the utilization of sugar palm root, as an economic and environmentally friendly methodology for slope protection and erosion control along the canal. Since Natural calamities as tsunamis, cyclones, floods, etc. cause landslides and soil erosion with loss of lives, damages of crops and trees quite often, affecting the economy on a large scale, heightened due to human activities in the coastal area of rivers, oceans, canals, mountains, destroying forests, cutting trees and other landscapes, there should be the adoption of traditional landslide protection mechanisms including wide-scale tree plantations as Palmyra palm along the canal and other coastal areas as the roots can tightly hold the soil and such measures can reduce landslides due to heavy rainfall and other natural calamities. However, only Palmyra palm plantation or vegetation defense mechanisms cannot stop the natural disaster. So, these tree plantation factors require optimal planning, maintenance, and support of communities which have to be carefully studied by management team and policymakers to take appropriate steps and measures for achieving a sustainable and long-lasting green defense shield.
Keywords: Sugar palm, Root system, Landslide protection
Autoridad del Canal de Panamá. (2012). Evaluation of the Erosion Control Methods Implemented by the Panama Canal Expansion Program. Retrieved from https://web.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-011112-231602/unrestricted/Erosion_Control_Group_Final_Report.pdf
Barfod, A. S., Balhara, M., Dransfield, J., & Balslev, H. (2015). SE Asian palms for agroforestry and home gardens. Forests, 6(12), 4607-4616.
Borin, K. (1996a). The Sugar Palm Tree As the Basis of Integrated Farming Systems in Cambodia. Retrieved from www.fao.org/livestock/AGAP/frg/conf 96.htm/khieu.htm
Borin, K. (1996b). A study on the use of the sugar palm tree (Borassus flabellifer) for different purposes in Cambodia. Retrieved from agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=SE9710404.
Carlos, A., Reyes, D., Cerrud, Y., Cortizo, L., & Maximiliano, D. P. (2018). Landslide Control Program at the Panama Canal. PIANC-World Congress Panama City, Panama 2018. Retrieved from https://www.
Colorado Department of Transportation. (2004). Drainage Design CHAPTER 17 BANK PROTECTION. Retrieved from https://www.codot.gov/programs/ environmental/water-quality/documents/drainage-design-manual/drainagedesignman ual_chapter17_bankprotection.pdf
Department of Environmental Conservation, New York. (2005). New York Standards and Specifications for Erosion and Sediment Control. Retrieved from https://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/water_pdf/
El Dorado Irrigation District. (2002). LANDSLIDE POTENTIAL ALONG THE EL DORADO CANAL. Retrieved from https://www.eid.org/home/showdocument ?id=935
Forbes, K., & Broadhead, J. (2011). Forests and landslides. The role of trees and forests in the prevention of landslides and rehabilitation of landslide-affected areas in Asia. Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO, RAP Publication. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-ba0126e.pdf
Gummadi, V. P., Battu, G. R., Keerthana Diyya, M. S., & Manda, K. (2016). A review on palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer). International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 8(2), 17-20.
Hu, X. S., Brierley, G., Zhu, H. L., Li, G. R., Fu, J. T., Mao, X. Q., ... & Qiao, N. (2013). An exploratory analysis of vegetation strategies to reduce shallow landslide activity on loess hill-slopes, Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Journal of Mountain Science, 10(4), 668-686.
Jana, H., & Jana, S. (2017). Palmyra palm: Importance in Indian agriculture. Rashtriya Krishi, 12(2), 35-40.
Kumar, D. U., Sreekumar, G., & Athvankar, U. (2009). Traditional writing system in southern India—palm leaf manuscripts. Design Thoughts, 7, 2-7.
Lawrence, E. (2017). Application of retaining wall in the control of flooding and gully erosion. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 6(9), 203-206.
Liang, T., Knappett, J. A., Bengough, A. G., & Ke, Y. X. (2017). Small-scale modelling of plant root systems using 3D printing, with applications to investigate the role of vegetation on earthquake-induced landslides. Landslides, 14(5), 1747-1765.
Malawai, K. (2011). Problem and solution approaches for failure of river banks of hui kaen river. Engineering Program in Construction and Infrastructure Management, Suranaree University of Technology.
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. (2014). Reconnaissance study of the concrete construction project to prevent the landslide along the Chumphon canal. Retrieved from http://irrigation.rid.go.th/rid14/
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.