Development of Geopolymer Bricks from Synergistic Use of Bagasse Ash and Concrete Residue as an Alternative for Industrial Waste Management


Sarocha Siriruekratana Nuta Supakata


     This research studies the feasibility of enhancing the physical and mechanical properties of bagasse-ash-based-geopolymer bricks with concrete residue. The effects of concrete residue were investigated using five different proportions of bagasse ash to concrete residue: 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 by weight. A 10 molar concentration of sodium hydroxide and a sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution were used as an alkaline solution with a mass ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH of 2.5. The geopolymer bricks were cured at 65°C for 24 hours in an oven and then at room temperature for 28 days. The chemical composition and particle size distribution of the bagasse ash and concrete residue were then analyzed. Using the TIS 168-2546 specification, the physical and mechanical properties, microstructure and crystal structure of the geopolymer bricks were then tested. The results showed significant improvements in water absorption and compressive strength of geopolymer bricks when concrete residue was added. The maximum compressive strength (8.83 MPa) and the minimum water absorption (0.86%) were found in geopolymer bricks with a 40% concrete residue.


Ahmari, S., Ren, X., Toufigh, V., & Zhang, L. (2012). Production of geopolymeric binder from blended waste concrete powder and fly ash. Construction and Building Materials, 35, 718-729.

Ahmari, S., & Zhang, L. (2013). Utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) to enhance mine tailings-based geopolymer bricks. Construction and Building Materials, 40, 1002-1011.

Anchaleerat, A. (2014). Synthesis and characterization of metakaolin based geopolymer from narathiwat and prachin clays. (Master’s Thesis). Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Aponte, C. (2015). Decreasing Water Absorption in and Environmental Analysis of Alkali Activated Bricks. (Bachelor’s Thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A.

Castaldelli, V. N., Akasaki, J. L., Melges, J. L., Tashima, M. M., Soriano, L., Borrachero, M. V., ... Payá, J. (2013). Use of slag/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends in the production of alkali-activated materials. Materials, 6(8), 3108-3127.

Castaldelli, V. N., Tashima, M. M., Melges, J. L. P., Akasaki, J. L., Monzó, J., Borrachero, M. V., ... Payá, J. (2014). Preliminary Studies on the use of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) in the Manufacture of Alkali Activated Binders. Key Engineering Materials 600, 689-698.

Department of industrial works. (2015). Industrial waste management plan 2015-2019. Retrieved from

Eliche-Quesada, D. (2015). Reusing of Oil Industry Waste as Secondary Material in Clay Bricks. Journal of Mineral, Metal and Material Engineering, 1, 29-39.

Guo, X., Shi, H., Chen, L., & Dick, W. A. (2010). Alkali-activated complex binders from class C fly ash and Ca-containing admixtures. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173(1), 480-486.

Jaturapitakkul, C. (2015). Industrial ash: good pozzolan material for concrete work. TCA e-magazine, 26, 1-11.

Kim, E. H. (2012). Understanding effects of silicon/aluminum ratio and calcium hydroxide on chemical composition, nanostructure and compressive strength for metakaolin geopolymers. (Master’s Thesis). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, U.S.A.

Lecomte, I., Henrist, C., Lie ́geois, M., Maseri, F., Rulmont, A., & Cloots, R. (2006). (Micro)-structural comparison between geopolymers, alkali-activated slag cement and Portland cement. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 26, 3789-3797.

Lin, W. T., Ho, H. L., Cheng, A., Huang, R., & Huang, C. C. (2012). Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Cement-Based Composites. Advanced Science Letters, 13(1), 762-767.

Rukzon, S., & Ngenprom, N. (2010). The Development of Risk husk ash and Bagasse Ash based geopolymeric materials. Retrieved from

Rukzon, S., & Chindapras, P. (2014). Strength and Porosity of Bagasse Ash-based Geopolymer Mortar. Journal of applied sciences, 14, 586-591.

Somna, K. (2014). Durability of Biomass Based Geopolymer. Retrieved from

Thai Industrial Standard Institute. (2004). Facing bricks 168-2546. Bangkok: Ministry of Industry Thailand.

Tippayasam, C., Boonsalee, S., Sajjavanich, S., Ponzoni, C., Kamseu, E., & Chaysuwan, D. (2010). Geopolymer development by powders of metakaolin and wastes in Thailand. Advances in Science and Technology, 69, 63-68.

Tippayasam, C., Leonelli, C., & Chaysuwan, D. (2014). Effect of agricultural wastes with fly ash on strength of geopolymers. Suranaree J. Sci. Technol, 21(1), 1-7.

Yip, C. K., Lukey, G. C., & Van Deventer, J. S. J. (2005). The coexistence of geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate at the early stage of alkaline activation. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(9), 1688-1697.

Zhang, L. (2013). Production of bricks from waste materials–A review. Construction and building materials, 47, 643-655.

Geopolymer bricks; Bagasse ash; Concrete residue; Industrial waste
Research Articles


How to Cite
SIRIRUEKRATANA, Sarocha; SUPAKATA, Nuta. Development of Geopolymer Bricks from Synergistic Use of Bagasse Ash and Concrete Residue as an Alternative for Industrial Waste Management. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 25, n. 4, p. 69-78, sep. 2017. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 09 feb. 2023.