Healthcare Accessibility of Incarcerated Women in Thailand


Kuntida Sriwichian Sila Tonboot Supasit Pannarunothai


     Female inmates are facing higher health risks than males due to physical conditions which cause them to live harder in limited space like in prison. Many articles pointed out that female inmates would have a higher chance of facing greater health sufferings in prison than male. In Thailand, the number of female prisoners reached forty thousand people and is ranked 5th highest rank in the world. Being a prisoner does not make a person less than human; therefore, their human rights shall not be deprived and must prevail. To lift the living standard for female inmates, the United Nations have adopted “the Bangkok Rules” after a prototype prison for women in Thailand has been tested. However, the accessibility to healthcare for female inmates still needs improvements because of high prisoner density. Lack of budget and limited resources also indicate that expanding or building new standard facilities are an unlikely solution. Rather than spending money, we may need to turn and look around what we have, and later develop medical wards that have sufficient resources, while merging the penitentiary's isolated health care system with the national health services. A medical prison ward should start with the minimum standard requirements in regulating professional services needed, and have these initiated, rather than a mere memorandum of understanding between organizations.

Keywords: Healthcare Access, Incarcerated Women, Prison Health, Bangkok Rules, Prison Health Care Reform


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How to Cite
SRIWICHIAN, Kuntida; TONBOOT, Sila; PANNARUNOTHAI, Supasit. Healthcare Accessibility of Incarcerated Women in Thailand. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences), [S.l.], v. 12, n. 3, p. 1-10, july 2019. ISSN 2539-5521. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 09 apr. 2020. doi: