Food Insecurity and Adaptation of Highland Communities in the North of Thailand

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Katesuda Sitthisuntikul

Abstract

There had been an ongoing concern about food security. This article used document analysis to investigate the factors of food security, the risks of food security and adaptation to such risks, from research reports relating to food security of highland communities in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand. The result indicated the four factors explaining food security: natural resources, local wisdom, beliefs in supernatural beings, and socio-culture of sharing. In contrast, the risks of food security consisted of the growth of commercial agriculture causing contaminated food, natural resource degradation and climate change affecting food accessibility and uncertain production, and the change of community livelihoods relating to sustaining food from generation to generation. The adaptation of highland people to these risks included focusing on more organic agriculture to protect natural resource and obtain safety food, managing food sources to access food sufficiently, and reviving and transmitting local wisdom for food sustainability. However, it required the encouragement of external agencies.

References

Barrow, C. J. (1999). Environmental management: principles and practice. London and New York: Routledge.

Bennett, J. W. (2005). The ecological transition: cultural anthropology and human adaptation. New Jersy: Transaction Publishers.

Burnet, F. M. (1970). Chairman's opening remarks: Human biology as the study of human differences. In S. V. Boyden (Ed.), The impact of civilization on the biology of man, 11-12 September 1968 (pp. xv-xx). Canberra: Austrailan National University Press.

Chevavithee Foundation. (2010). Handbook of food (in) security and the solution of Thailand. Bangkok: the Office of Promoting Reformation System for Life Quality of Agriculturalist, Community and Society.

Chopkhunkhao, P., Mekcheunjai, A., Meeparangdee, N., Chopkhunkhao, C., & Mekcheunjai, P. (2013). Investigating and restoring sufficient food management of Pa Ka Kur Yor at Mae U Kor Luang Village, Khum Yuam District, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Drew, D. (1983). Man-environment process. London and Boston: George Allen and Unwin.

FAO. (2006). Food security. Policy Brief, 2, 1-4.

FAO, IFAD and WFP. (2013). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. The multiple dimensions of food security. Rome: FAO.

Feenstra, G. W. (1997). Local food systems and sustainable communities. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 12(1), 28-36.

Goudie, A. (1993). The human impact on the natural environment (4th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Howard, G. S. (2002). How should I live my life?. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publisher.

Inud, T. (2006). Adjustment as an impact of environmental change among residences Mae Tao, District of Mae Sot, Tak Province. (Master’s thesis). Silapakorn University, Bangkok.

Jitsawang, P., Sirichart, M., & Pinta, S. (2010a). Managing knowledge to establish partnership integration in the event of sustainable agriculture at Mae Sa Riang District, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Jitsawang, P., Sirichart, M., & Pinta, S. (2010b). The management of production system and alternative marketing of alternative agriculture network at Mae Sa Riang District, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Kreasui, K., Junpeng, C., & Junyuang, P. (2009). The transmission and use of heredity plants, Lua people at Pa Pae Village, at Mae Sa Riang District, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Lando, R. P. (1983). "The spirit aren't so powerful any more" spirit belief and irrigation organization in north Thailand. Journal of the Siam Society, 71(1/2), 121-148.

Limnirankul, B., Thong-ngarm, K., Promburom, P., Ekasingh, B., Saengchyoswat, C., Siribut, Y., & Kerdman, K. (2011). Assessment of food security line and poverty line of the rural household in Chiang Mai Province. The seventienth seminar report of national agricultural system, 8-10 August 2011 (pp. 346-355). Mahasarakham: Mahasarakham University

Makawan, K., Phonjamreaun, T., Viriyapranee, B., Yanakul, A., & Manotham, P. (2010). Saving cost of soybean cultivation with alternative agriculture at Ta Song Kuae Village, Mae La Noi Sub-District, Mae La Noi Distrcit, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Mogalakwe, M. (2006). The use of documentary research methods in social research. African SXZociological Review, 10(1), 221-230.

National Health Commission. (2012). Thai people health 2012: food security, money is illusion-food is real (Neugn Thong Khong Maya-Khao Pra Si Khong Jing). Nakornpathom: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University. Retrieved from http://www.hiso.or.th/hiso5/report/report2012T..php

Noorden, P. V. (1990). Contrasts in living conditions. Cambridge and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Norat, C. (2003). Community economy and welfare. Bangkok: Thailand Research Fund.

Passawararojkul, N., Cheepanich, P., & Hatthawasukul, Y. (2013). Food security relating to local food system and nutrition of Tai Yai at Pang Moo Village, Pang Moo Sub-District, Muang District, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Pinstrup-Andersen, P., & Pandya-Lorch, R. (1998). Food security and sustainable use of natural resources: a 2020 vision. Ecological Economics, 26(1), 1-10.

Pye-Smith, C. (2005). Forests for people and the environment: CIFOR annual report 2004. Bogor, Indonesia: The Center for International Forestry Research.

Pyle, R. M. (2003). Nature matrix: reconnecting people and nature. Oryx, 37(2), 206-214. doi: 10.1017/S0030605303000383

Rerkasem, K., & Rerkasem, B. (1994). Shifting cultivation in Thailand: its current situation and dynamics in the context of highland development IIED Forestry and Land Use Series No. 4. London: Faculty of Agriculture of Chiang Mai University and International Institution for Environment and Development.

Rosegrant, M. W., & Cline, S. A. (2003). Global food security: challenges and policies. Science, 302(5652), 1917-1919.

Sajin, P. (2009). Report submitted to UNDP Thailand. Retrieved from http://sathai.org/story_thai/043-FOOD_SECURITY.pdf

Santasombat, Y. (2005). Human and culture. The third edition. Bangkok: Thammasart University Publication.

Satetakul, R. (2003). A decade of community economy in the northern Thai village. Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Sponsel, L. E., & Natadecha-Sponsel, P. (1995). The role of Buddhism in creating a more sustainable society in Thailand. In J. Rigg (Ed.), Counting the costs: economic growth and environmental change in Thailand, July 1993 (pp. 27-46). PasirPanjang, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Srimalee, S., Panyakon, P., Koha, Y., Srimalee, T., Panapraisakul., Y., & Samajitarporn., S. (2014). Investigating and conserving heredity plants of Pa Kwa Kur Yor: a case study of Thai and Burmaat Ta Ta Fung Village, Mae Yuam Sub-District, Mae Sa Riang District, Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Stoffle, R., Toupal, R., & Zedeno, N. (2003). Landscape, nature, and culture: a diachronic model of human-nature adaptations. In H. Selin (Ed.), Nature across cultures: views of nature and environment in non-western cultures (Vol. 4, pp. 97-114). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Sukpothiyarn, S., Sangsanti, A., Wongkereesakul, S., Chopkhunkhao, P., Klangthin, S., Makham, S., & Ganthawang, S. (2013). The development of field corn cultivation and the change of agricultural practices of agriculturalists in Mae Hong Son Province (Research report). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Sustainable Agriculture Foundation. (2011). Final report: indicators of food security in communities. Nonthaburee: The National Health Commission Office.

Teerasartsawas, S. (2003). Community economy in the north-east of Thailand: the history after World War II (1945-2001). Bangok: Thailand Research Fund.

Trier, J. (1981). The Khon Pa of northern Thailand: an enigma. Chicago Journals, 22(3), 291-293.

Keywords
Adaptation, Food Security, Highland Communities, Natural Resource Depletion
Section
Research Articles

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
SITTHISUNTIKUL, Katesuda. Food Insecurity and Adaptation of Highland Communities in the North of Thailand. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences), [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 63-73, mar. 2017. ISSN 2539-5521. Available at: <http://www.journal.nu.ac.th/JCDR/article/view/1721>. Date accessed: 22 jan. 2019.