The aim of this research was to study the utilization of Napier grass stems (NGS) as an adsorbent for removing Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of adsorbency indicated that adsorption could occur via electrostatic interaction between metal ions and active functional groups on the rough surfaces of the adsorbent. The conditions of the adsorption process were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The three variables in this study were pH, initial concentration, and adsorbent dosage, which were decided by the Central Composite Design (CCD), while the response was considered by the adsorption capacity. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the proposed model was significant in response, precision, and reliability. The maximum adsorption capacity was 5.90 mg g-1 in a solution with a pH of 5.83, an initial concentration of 50.00 mg L-1, and with an adsorbent dosage of 0.10 g. It was found that the initial concentration of Cadmium solution and adsorbent dosage had a significant effect on the adsorption capacity. The equilibrium process of Cadmium adsorption was well-described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R2=0.9918), and the adsorption kinetic corresponded to the pseudo-second order model (R2=0.9990). In addition, thermodynamic studies illustrated that the adsorption process was endothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. In summary, it was proved to be feasible that Napier grass stems could be used as an alternative and sustainable adsorbent for removing Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions.
Keywords: adsorption isotherm, kinetic study, napier grass stems, optimization, response surface methodology, thermodynamic study
Afkhami, A., Madrakian, T., Karimi, Z., & Amini, A. (2007). Effect of treatment of carbon cloth with sodium hydroxide solution on its adsorption capacity for the adsorption of cations. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 304(1-3), 36-40.
Al-Malack, M. H., & Dauda, M. (2017). Competitive adsorption of cadmium and phenol on activated carbon produced from municipal sludge. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5, 2718–2729.
Al-Shannag, M., Al-Qodah, Z., Bani-Melhem, K., Qtaishat, M. R., & Alkasrawi, M. (2015). Heavy metal ions removal from metal plating wastewater using electrocoagulation: kinetic study and process performance. Chemical Engineering Journal, 260, 749–756.
Aydeniz, D. D., Olcay, G., & Nazlm, G. (2019). Optimization of adsorption for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using turkish coffee grounds. International Journal of Environmental Research, 13(5), 861–878.
Bhargavi, M., Sethuraman, S., Krishnan, U. M., Bosco, J., & Rayappan, J .B. B. (2015). A review on detection of heavy metal ions in water – an electrochemical approach. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 213, 515–533.
Cai, X., He, J., Chen, L., Chen, K., Li, Y., Zhang, K., … Wang, X. (2017). A2D-g-C3N4 nanosheet as an eco-friendly adsorbent for various environmental pollutants in water. Chemosphere, 171, 192–201.
Chabicovsky, M., Klepal, W., & Dallinger, R. (2004). Mechanism of cadmium toxicity in terrestrial pulmonates: programmed cell death and metallothionein overload. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23, 648-655.
Daniel, S., Affonso, C. G. Jr., Gustavo, F. C., Marcelo, A. C., Douglas, C. D., César, R. T. T., … Eduardo, A. V. L. (2016). Chemical modifications of cassava peel as adsorbent material for metals ions from wastewater. Journal of Chemistry, 2016(3694174), 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3694174
Daniel, S., Affonso, C. G. Jr, Amarilis, De V., & Alessandro, L. B. (2018). Modified grape stem as a renewable adsorbent for cadmium removal. Water Science & Technology, 78, 2308-2320.
Denizli, A., Özkan, G., & Arica, Y. (2000). Preparation and characterization of magnetic polymethylmethacrylate microbeads carrying ethylene diamine for removal of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. Journal of Applied Polymer, 78(1), 81-89.
Dil, E. A., Ghaedi, M., Mohammad, A., Asfaram, A., Mohammad, A., & Purkait, M. K. (2016). Application of artificial neural network and response surface methodology for the removal of crystal violet by zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: kinetics and equilibrium study. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 59, 210-220.
Feng, N., Guo, X., Liang, S., Zhu, Y., & Liu, J. (2011). Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by chemically modified orange peel. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 49-54.
Freundlich, H. M. F. (1906). Over the adsorption in solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 57, 385-471.
Guo, X., Zhang, S., & Shan, X. Q. (2008). Adsorption of metal ions on lignin. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151, 134–142.
Gupta, V. K., Tyagi, I., Sadegh, H., Shahryari-Ghoshekandi, R., Makhlouf, A. S. H., & Maazinejad, B. (2015). Nanoparticles as adsorbent; a positive approach for removal of noxious metal ions: a review. Science, Technology and Development, 34(3), 195-214.
Herbert, N., Affonso, C. G. Jr., Marcelo, A. C., Gustavo, F. C., Daniel, S., Marcelo, G.dos S., & Juliano, Z. (2016). Open Chemistry, 14, 103-117.
Ho, Y. S., & Mckay, G. (1999). Pseudo-second order model for sorption process. Process Biochemistry, 34, 19451-19465.
Karimi, M., Milani, S. A., & Abolgashemi, H. (2016). Kinetic and isotherm analyses for thorium (IV) adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions by modified magnetite nanoparticle using response surface methodology (RSM). Journal of Nuclear Materials, 479, 174-183.
Lagergren, S. (1898). About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar, 24, 1-39.
Langmuir, I. (1918). The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society American Chemical Society, 40, 1361-1403.
Leng, L., Yuana, X., Zenga, G., Shaoa, J., Chen, X., Wua, Z., … & Peng, X. (2015). Surface characterization of rice husk bio-char produced by liquefaction and application for cationic dye (Malachite green) adsorption. Fuel, 155, 77-85.
Li, C., Zhao, S., Zhang, S., Shi, X., Zhu, D., & Sun, B. (2011). Analysis and evaluation of the source of heavy metals in water of the River Changjiang. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 173, 301–313.
Liqiang, C., Tianming, C., Chuntao, Y., Jinlong, Y., James, A. I., & Qaiser, H. (2019). Mechanism of adsorption of cadmium and lead ions by iron-activated biochar. BioResources, 14(1), 842-857.
Llanos, J., Williams, P. M., Cheng, S., Rogers, D., Wright, C., Pérez, A., & Cañizares, P. (2010). Characterization of a ceramic ultrafiltration membrane in different operational states after its use in a heavy-metal ion removal process. Water Research, 44, 3522–3530.
María, S. P., Irene, B., Jorge, E. S., & Franco, M. (2017). Cadmium removal from acqueous solution by adsorption on spent coffee grounds. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 60, 157-162.
Masita, M., Saikat, M., Naveed, A., Azmi, B., Sen, T. K., & Binay, K. D. (2010). Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179, 363–372.
Mohammad, K., Saeid, A. M., & Hossein, A. (2016). Kinetic and isotherm analyses for thorium (IV) adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions by modified magnetite nanoparticle using response surface methodology (RSM). Journal of Nuclear Materials, 479, 174-183.
Mohan, D., Kumar, H., Sarswat, A., Alexandre-Franco, M., & Pittman, C. U. (2014). Cadmium and lead remediation using magnetic oak wood and oak bark fast pyrolysis bio-chars. Chemical Engineering Journal, 236, 513–28.
Montgomery, D. C., (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Pavan, F. A., Lima, E. C., Dias, S. L., & Mazzocato, A. C. (2008). Methylene blue biosorption from aqueous solutions by yellow passion fruit waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150, 703-712.
Peng, N., Hu, D., Zeng, J., Li, Y., Liang, L., & Chang, C. (2016). Superadsorbent cellulose-clay nanocomposite hydrogel for highly efficient removal of dye in water. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 4, 7217-7224.
Qu, G., Liang, D., Qu, D., Huang, Y., Liu, T., Mao, H., … Huang, D. (2013). Simultaneous removal of cadmium ions and phenol from water solution by pulsed corona discharge plasma combined with activated carbon. Chemical Engineering Journal, 228, 28–35.
Reddy, D. H. K., & Lee, S-M. (2013). Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 201-202, 68–93.
Runping, H., Lijun, Z., Chen, S., Manman, Z., Huimin, Z., & LiJuan, Z. (2010). Characterization of modified wheat straw, kinetic and equilibrium study about copper ion and methylene blue adsorption in batch mode. Carbohydrate Polymers, 79(4), 1140-1149.
Saad, M., Tahir, H., Khan, J., Hameed, U., & Saud, A. (2017). Synthesis of polyaniline nanoparticles and their application for the removal of Crystal Violet dye by ultrasonicated adsorption process based on response surface methodology. Ultrasonics. Sonochemistry, 34, 600-608.
Sales, P. F., Magriotis, Z. M., Rossi, M. A. L. S., Resende, R. F., & Nunes, C. A. (2013). Optimization by response surface methodology of the adsorption of coomassie blue dye on natural and acid-treated clay. Journal of Environmental Management1, 30, 417-428.
Santra, D., & Sarkar, M. (2016). Optimization of process variables and mechanism of arsenic (V) adsorption onto cellulose nanocomposite. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 224, 290-302.
Sun, T., Zhao, Z., Liang, Z., Liu, J., Shi, W., & Cui, F. (2017). Efficient removal of arsenite through photocatalytic oxidation and adsorption by ZrO2-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 416, 656–665.
Sun, Y., Zhou, Q., Xu, Y., Wang, L., & Liang, X. (2011). Phytoremediation for co-contaminated soils of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and heavy metals using ornamental plant Tagetes patula. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 2075–2082.
Tan, P., Sun, J., Hu, Y., Fang, Z., Bi, Q., Chen, Y., & Cheng, J. (2015). Adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous single metal solutions on graphene oxide membranes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 297, 251–260.
Tatah, V. S., Ibrahim, K. L. C., Ezeonu, C. S., & Otitoju, O. (2017). Biosorption kinetics of heavy metals from Fertilizer industrial waste water using groundnut husk powder as an adsorbent. Journal of Applied Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 2(6), 221‒228.
Wang, Z., Feng, Y., Hao, X., Huang, W., & Feng, X. (2014). A novel potential-responsive ion exchange film system for heavy metal removal. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2, 10263–10272.
WHO. (2011). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, fourth ed., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2011/dwq_guidelines/en/
Wimonrat, T., Orranooch, S., Titikan, S., & Manop, S. (2019). An alternative and cost-effective biosorbent derived from napier grass stem for malachite green removal. Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, 10(8), 685-695.
Wu, M., Liang, J., Jie, T., Li, G., Shan, S., Guo, Z., & Le, D. (2017). Decontamination of multiple heavy metals-containing effluents through microbial biotechnology. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 337, 189–197.
Xi, Y., Luo, Y., Luo, J., & Luo, X. (2015). Removal of cadmium (II) from waste water using novel cadmium ion-imprinted polymers. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 60(11), 3253-3261.
Zhong, Y. J., You, S. J., Wang, X. H., Zhou, X., Gan, Y., & Ren, N. Q. (2013). Synthesis of carbonaceous nanowire membrane for removing heavy metal ions and high water flux. Chemical Engineering Journal, 226, 217–226.
Zhu, J., Baig, S. A., Sheng, T., Lou, Z., Wang, Z., & Xu, X. (2015). Fe3O4 and MnO2 assembled on honeycomb briquette cinders (HBC) for arsenic removal from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 286, 220–228.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.