Effect of 17 Beta-Estradiol Hormone and Cypermethrin Insecticide on Nile Tilapia


Chutima Thanomsit Samnao Saowakoon Amnuay Wattanakornsiri Jakkaphun Nanuam Witchuda Prasatkaew Phochit Nanthanawat


     This research aimed to investigate the effect of 17-beta estradiol hormone and cypermethrin onto Nile tilapia in both male and female. After exposure to 17-beta estradiol and cypermethrin, they were assessed for the changes in behaviors, external physiological expressions, internal organ characteristics and protein forms. We found that the fish in the control and 17-beta estradiol induction group swam normally, which contrasted with those fish that exposed to cypermethrin in sub lethal level with and without inducing vitellogenin production. Their swimming was very fast, abnormal and directionless. Additionally, the operculum were always moving and there was lesion around their mouth. The scales were loosened and bleeding as well as the internal organs was decayed. After studying the vitellogenin induction using Western blotting technique, we found the protein band of vitellogenin (210 kDa) in only the female fish induced by 17-beta estradiol (6 mg/kg of body weight) and soaked in 0.25 ppm of cypermethrin. Moreover, their plasma gave a positive result (dark brown) in Dot blot testing. Based on our results, we concluded that cypermethrin and 17-beta estradiol hormone resulted in vitellogenin expression in the female of Nile tilapia. Besides, cypermethrin affected the behaviors, physiological expressions and internal organs. This research is concluded that vitellogenin could be used to assess the exposure of 17-beta estradiol mixed with cypermethrin affecting on endocrine gland functions. It would be beneficial to the investigation of environmental quality and fish population in aquatic environment.

Keywords: Cypermethrin, Nile tilapia, Vitellogenin, Insecticide, Endocrine disrupting chemicals


Campbell, C. G., Borglin, S. E., Green, F. B., Grayson, A., Wozei, E., & Stringfellow, W. T. (2006). Biologically directed environmental monitoring, fate, and transport of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in water: A review. Chemosphere, 65(8), 1265–1280.
Daud, O. A. Jasmani, S., Sung, Y., & Bolong, A. (2016). Use of vitellogenin as biomarker indicator in sex identification of Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus). Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences, 4(2), 1-7.
Desforges, J. P. W., Peachey, B. D. L., Sanderson, P. M., White, P. A., & Blais, J. M. (2010). Plasma vitellogenin in male teleost fish from 43 rivers worldwide is correlated with upstream human population size. Environmental Pollution, 158(10), 3279–3284.
Gopi, R. A., Sathya, T. N., Goparaju, A., & Murthy, P. B. (2012). Endocrine Disrupting Effect of Fenvalerate 20% EC and Mancozeb 80% WP in adult Zebra fish (Danio rerio) using Vitellogenin as a Biomarker. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 1(6), 66–72.
Halappa, R., & David, M. (2008). Behavioral Responses of the Freshwater Fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) Following Sublethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 9, 233–238.
Hoeger, B. Kollner, B., Dietrich, D. R., & Hitzfeld, B. (2005). Water-borne diclofenac affects kidney and gill integrity and selected immune parameters in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Aquatic Toxicology, 75(1), 53–64.
Keenleyside, M. H. A. (1979). Diversity and adaptation in fish behavior. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Le, T. H., Lim, E. S., Lee, S. K., Choi, Y. W., Kim, Y. H., & Min, J. (2010). Effects of glyphosate and methidathion on the expression of the Dhb, Vtg, Arnt, CYP4 and CYP314 in Dapnia magna. Chemosphere, 79, 67–71.
Luo, W., Zhou, Q., & Jiang, G. (2011). Development of enzyme-link immunosorbent assay for plasma vitellogenin in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Chemosphere, 84, 681–688.
Little, E. E., & Brewer, S. K. (2001). Neuro behavioral toxicity in fish. In D. Schlenk & W.H. Benson (Eds.), Target Organ Toxicity in Marine and Freshwater Teleost (pp. 139-174). London, UK: CRC press.
Marx, A., Sherry, J., Hansen, P. D., & Hock, B. (2001). A new monoclonal antibody against vitellogenin from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chemosphere, 44(3), 393-399.
Mills, L. J., & Chichester, C. (2005). Review of evidence: are endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the aquatic environment impacting fish populations?. Science of the Total Environment, 343(1-3), 1–34.
Nanthanawat, P. (2015). Vitellogenin: Biomarker for EDCs Exposure in Aquatic Environment. Burapha Science Journal, 20(2), 201–208. (In Thai)
Nicolas, J. M. (1999). Vitellogenesis in fish and the effects of PAH contaminants. Aquatic Toxicology, 45, 77–90.
Paetrangsi, S., Prasatkeaw, W., & Nanthanawat, P. (2017). Effect of Nonylphenol to Vitellogenin Induction in Juvenile Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer). Burapha Science Journal, 22, 195–202.
Petchoy, T., & Pung, T. (2017). Effect of Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate Spraying Doses on Residue Concentrations in Scallion (Alliumcepa var. aggregatum). The Journal of Agricultural Science, 48(1), 108–117.
Pimentel, D. (1995). Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: environmental impacts and ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 8, 17–29.
Prasatkaew, W., Thanomsit, C., & Nanthanawat, P. (2016). Cross-Reactivity of Monoclonal Antibody against Vitellogenin from Asian Sea bass. In faculty of Science, Payao University (Eds.), Science and Technology to Innovation : Proceedings of the 8th Science Research Conference, 30-31 May 2016 (pp. 491–496). Payao, University of Payao. (In Thai)
Prasopsuk, J., Saisuphan, P., & Srisawangwong, W. (2014). Analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits for the certification of Good Agricultural Practice in upper Northeast Thailand. Khonkaen Agiculture Journal, 42(2), 430–439.
Sancho, E., Fernandez-Vega, C., Ferrando, M. D., & Andreu-Moliner, E. (2003). Eel ATPase activity as biomarker of thiobencarb exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 56, 434–441.
Sole, M., Porte, C., & Barcelo, D. (2001). Analysis of the estrogenic activity of sewage treatment works and receiving waters using vitellogenin induction in fish as a biomarker. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 20(9), 518–525.
Sumpter, J. P., & Jobling, S. (1995). Vitellogenesis as a biomarker for estrogenic contamination of the aquatic environment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 173–178.
Tian, H., Ru, S., Bing, X., & Wang, W. (2010). Effects of monocrotophos on their productive axis in the male gold fish (Carassius auratus): potential mechanisms under lying vitellogenin induction. Aquatic Toxicology, 98, 67–73.
Ullah, S., & Zorriehzahra, M. J. (2015). Ecotoxicology: a review of pesticides induced toxicity in fish. Advance in Animal and Veterinary Science, 3, 40–57
Wang, J., Bing, X., Yu, K., Tian, H., Wang, W., & Ru, S. (2015). Preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (Carassius auratus) vitellogenin and it application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 111, 109-116.
Walker, C. H., Hopkin, S. P., & Peakall, D. B. (2006). Principle of Ecotoxicology. New York, USA: Taylor & Francis.
Watt, M., Pankhurst, N. W., Pryce, A., & Sun, B. (2003). Vitellogenin isolation, purification and antigenic cross-reactivity in three teleost species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 134, 467–476.

Research Articles


How to Cite
THANOMSIT, Chutima et al. Effect of 17 Beta-Estradiol Hormone and Cypermethrin Insecticide on Nile Tilapia. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 26, n. 4, p. 119-131, nov. 2018. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <http://www.journal.nu.ac.th/NUJST/article/view/Vol-26-No-4-2018-119-131>. Date accessed: 23 apr. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2018.28.