Job resources are work conditions that can help individuals achieve their career goals. The concept has a potential application in the nursing profession but a nursing job resources scale based on the Thai context does not yet exist. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale that assessed the perceived levels of job resources of Thai nurses in the private sector. The study employed the exploratory sequential mixed-methods design (qualitative research followed by quantitative research) and was composed of two phases. First, the scale development began with individual interviews to explore what work conditions adequately represented the job resources of Thai nurses, followed by item generation and assessment, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability analysis. Second, the scale validation was achieved via confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent and concurrent validity analysis. The sample, consisting of 761 Thai nurses from 16 private hospitals in Bangkok, was randomly divided into three parts for different analyses, which resulted in the 15-item job resources scale (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = .90), with three dimensions (CMIN/df = 1.50, CFI = .98, TLI = .97, RMSEA = .05, and SRMR = .04) that had the potential for use in studies in various disciplines related to nurse populations in Thailand. The indicators of the newly-developed job resources scale not only can enlighten educators concerning the crucial factors regarding the nursing job resources in the Thai context, but can also be used by practitioners as a guideline to increase professional accomplishments.
Keywords: Job Resources, Scale Development and Validation, Thai Nurses
Adler, M., & Koch, A. K. (2017). Expanding the Job Demands-Resources Model to Classify Innovation-Predicting Working Conditions. Management Revue, 28(2), 175-203. DOI: 10.5771/0935-9915-2017-2-175
Babakus, E., Yavas, U., & Karatepe, O. M. (2008). The Effects of Job Demands, Job Resources and Intrinsic Motivation on Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intentions: A Study in the Turkish Hotel Industry. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 9(4), 384-404. DOI: 10.1080/15256480802427339
Bakker, A. B., Hakanen, J. J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job Resources Boost Work Engagement, Particularly When Job Demands Are High. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 274-284. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1684
Bhatti, M. A., Hussain, M. S., & Al Doghan, M. A. (2018). The Role of Personal and job Resources in Boosting Nurses' Work Engagement and Performance. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 37(2), 32-40. DOI: 10.1002/joe.21840
Blanco-Donoso, L. M., Garrosa, E., Moreno-Jimenez, B., de Almeida, E. C., & Villela-Bueno, S. M. (2017). Social Job Resources as Sources of Meaningfulness and its Effects on Nurses' Vigor and Emotional Exhaustion: A Cross-Sectional Study among Spanish Nurses. Current Psychology, 36(4), 755-763. DOI: 10.1007/s121
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. Oxford, England: Wiley & Sons.
Burnette, J. L., & Williams, L. J. (2005). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM): An Introduction to Basic Techniques and Advanced Issues. In R. A. Swanson & E. F. H. lll (Eds.), Research in Organizations: Foundations and Methods of Inquiry (pp. 143-160). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Chou, H. Y., Hecker, R., & Martin, A. (2012). Predicting Nurses’ Well‐Being from Job Demands and Resources: A Cross‐Sectional Study of Emotional Labour. Journal of Nursing Management, 20(4), 502-511. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01305.x
Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary Medical Tourism: Conceptualisation, Culture and Commodification. Tourism Management, 34, 1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.009
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The Job Demands-Resources Model of Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512. DOI: 10.1037//0021-9010.86.3.499
Demerouti, E., Mostert, K., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Burnout and Work Engagement: A thorough Investigation of the Independency of Both Constructs. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(3), 209-222.
D'Emiljo, A., & du Preez, R. (2017). Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Diagnostic Survey of Nursing Practitioners. Africa Journal of Nursing & Midwifery, 19(1), 69-87. DOI: 10.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. DOI: 10.2307/3151312
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Halcomb, E. J., & Davidson, P. M. (2006). Is Verbatim Transcription of Interview Data Always Necessary? Applied Nursing Research, 19(1), 38-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.apnr.2005.06.001
Hinkin, T. R. (2005). Scale Development Principles and Practices. In R. A. Swanson & E. F. Holton III (Eds.), Research in Organizations: Foundations and Methods of Inquiry (pp. 161-179). San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler.
Howard, M. C. (2016). A Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis Decisions and Overview of Current Practices: What we are doing and how can we improve? International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(1), 51-62. DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2015.1087664
Huhtala, H., & Parzefall, M. R. (2007). A Review of Employee Well‐Being and Innovativeness: An Opportunity for a Mutual Benefit. Creativity and Innovation Management, 16(3), 299-306. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8691.2007.00442.x
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. DOI: 10.1080/10705519909540118
Hu, Q., Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2017). How are Changes in Exposure to Job Demands and Job Resources Related to Burnout and Engagement? A Longitudinal Study among Chinese Nurses and Police Officers. Stress and Health, 33(5), 631-644. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2750
Jourdain, G., & Chênevert, D. (2010). Job Demands–Resources, Burnout and Intention to Leave the Nursing Profession: A Questionnaire Survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(6), 709-722. DOI: 10.1016/
Kasikorn Research. (2016). Medical Tourism is Still Growing which Provides Opportunities for Private Hospitals to Expand their International Customer Base. Retrieved from https://www.kasikornresearch.com/TH/K-EconAnalysis/Pages/ViewSummary.aspx?docid=35123
Laschinger, H. K. S., Grau, A. L., Finegan, J., & Wilk, P. (2012). Predictors of New Graduate Nurses' Workplace Well-Being: Testing the Job Demands-Resources Model. Health Care Manage Rev, 37(2), 175-186.
Llorens, S., Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2007). Does a Positive Gain Spiral of Resources, Efficacy Beliefs and Engagement Exist? Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 825-841. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.
Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., & Saudargas, R. A. (2006). Scale Development. In F. T. L. Leong & J. T. Austin (Eds.), The Psychology Research Handbook: A Guide for Graduate Students and Research Assistants Vol. 2 (2nd ed.) (pp. 125-146). Thousand Oaks: CA: SAGE.
Moloney, W., Boxall, P., Parsons, M., & Cheung, G. (2018). Factors Predicting Registered Nurses' Intentions to Leave their Organization and Profession: A Job Demands-Resources Framework. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(4), 864-875. DOI: 10.1111/jan.13497
Montgomery, A., Spânu, F., Băban, A., & Panagopoulou, E. (2015). Job Demands, Burnout, and Engagement among Nurses: A Multi-Level Analysis of ORCAB Data Investigating the Moderating Effect of Teamwork. Burnout Research, 2(2-3), 71-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.burn.2015.06.001
Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at Work: a Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Link between Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Engagement, and Safety Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71-94. DOI: 10.1037/a0021484
Rothmann, S., & Essenko, N. (2007). Job Characteristics, Optimism, Burnout, and Ill Health of Support Staff in a Higher Education Institution in South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 37(1), 135-152.
Rothmann, S., Mostert, K., & Strydom, M. (2006). A Psychometric Evaluation of the Job Demands-Resources Scale in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 32(4), 76-86. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v32i4.239
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015630930326
Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A Critical Review of the Job Demands-Resources Model: Implications for Improving Work and Health. In G. F. Bauer & O. Hämmig (Eds.), Bridging Occupational, Organizational and Public Health: A Transdisciplinary Approach (pp. 43-68). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Shahpouri, S., Namdari, K., & Abedi, A. (2016). Mediating Role of Work Engagement in the Relationship between Job Resources and Personal Resources with Turnover Intention among Female Nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 30, 216-221. DOI: 10.1016/j.apnr.2015.10.008
Sundin, L., Hochwälder, J., & Lisspers, J. (2011). A Longitudinal Examination of Generic and Occupational Specific Job Demands, and Work-Related Social Support Associated with Burnout among Nurses in Sweden. Work, 38(4), 389-400. DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2011-1142
Thirapatsakun, T., Kuntonbutr, C., & Mechinda, P. (2014). The Relationships among Job Demands, Work Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in the Multiple Groups of Different Levels of Perceived Organizational Supports. Universal Journal of Management, 2(7), 272-285. DOI: 10.13189/ujm.2014.020703
Vander Elst, T., Cavents, C., Daneels, K., Johannik, K., Baillien, E., Van den Broeck, A., & Godderis, L. (2016). Job Demands–Resources Predicting burnout and Work Engagement among Belgian Home Health Care Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nursing Outlook, 64(6), 542-556. DOI: 10.1016/j.outlook.2016.06.004
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009a). Reciprocal Relationships between Job Resources, Personal Resources, and Work Engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235-244. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.11.003
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009b). Work Engagement and Financial Returns: A Diary Study on the Role of Job and Personal Resources. Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology, 82(1), 183-200. DOI: 10.1348/096317908X285633
Yang, B. (2005). Factor Analysis Methods. In R. A. Swanson & E. F. Holton III (Eds.), Research in Organizations: Foundations and Methods of Inquiry (pp. 181-199). San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler.
Zito, M., Cortese, C. G., & Colombo, L. (2016). Nurses’ Exhaustion: The Role of Flow at Work between Job Demands and Job Resources. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(1), E12-E22. DOI: 10.1111/jonm.12284