Comparing Media Use among Ethnic Thai-So in Northeastern Thailand: A Case Study of Kokmoung Village, Photipaisan Village and Nonghoynoi Village


Benjapa Kaithong


     The research was to compare media use among ethnic Thai-So in northeastern Thailand. A descriptive survey research design was adopted, using questionnaires as the main research instrument. Using a stratified random sampling, a total of 631 Thai-So people were the research participants. Collected data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and a one-way ANOVA. The findings indicated that the socio-economic status, selective exposure to messages, motivation for media use and media use, across the three villages, were similar to each another. Nevertheless, there was a difference in media use when considering six types of media in each village. Photipaisan village (V2) used newspaper, satellite television, and internet to a greater extent than Kokmoung village (V1) and Nonghoynoi village (V3), and at the same time Nonghoynoi village (V3) watched satellite television rather than Kokmoung village did (V1). Furthermore, the implication of this research pinpointed that education, socio-economic status, labor migration and urbanization were the significant variables causing Thai-So people to accept and use various media: newspapers, satellite television and Internet.

Keywords: Media Use, Ethnic Thai-So, Northeast Region of Thailand


Abrams, J. R., & Giles, H. (2007). Ethnic Identity Gratifications Selection and Avoidance by African Americans:
A Group Vitality and Social Identity Gratifications Perspective. Media Psychology, 9, 115-134.

Anarbaeva, S., & Turner, S. J. (2010). The Influence of Religiosity and Ethnic Identification. Mass Communication and Society, 13, 314-334.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, O. S., Asekun-Olarinmoye, E. O., Adebimpe, W. O., & Omisore, A. G. (2014). Effect of Mass Media and Internet on Sexual Behavior of Undergraduates in Osogbo Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 5, 15-23.

Burasit, Y. (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Thai-So Ethnic Group in Thailand. Bangkok: Mahidol University.

Choi, K. Y., Kim, J., & McMillan, J. S. (2009). Motivations for the Intention to Use Mobile TV: A Comparison of South Korean Males and Females. International Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 147-167.

Cooper, R., & Tang, T. (2009). Predicting Audience Exposure to Television in Today’s Media Environment: An Empirical Integration of Active-Audience and Structural Theories. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(3), 400-418.

Croucher, M. S., Oommen, D., & Borton, I. (2010). The Influence of Religiosity and Ethnic Identification on Media Use among Muslims and Non-Muslims in France and Britain. Mass Communication and Society, 13, 314-334.

Dararat, M., & Akaraya, S. (2003). The Survey of Researches on Social and Culture of E-Sarn Ethnic Groups During 1957-2002. Khon Kaen: Center for Research on Plurality in Mekong Region.

Information and Communication Technology. (2017). The Mass Media Survey: 1989, 1994, 2003 and 2008. Retrieved from

Jamal, A., & Melkote, R. S. (2008). Viewing and Avoidance of the Al-Jazeera Satellite Television Channel in Kuwait: A Uses and Gratifications Perspectives. Asian Journal of Communication, 18(1), 1-15.

Kaithong, B. (2015). The Effects of Media Use on the Changing Ways of Life of the Thai-So Ethnic Group in Kusuman District of Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen.

Kania, S. R., & Kania, H. S. (1979). The So People of Kusuman. Journal of the Siam Society, 67, 1-39.

Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of Mass Communication by the Individual.
In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The Uses of Mass Communication: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research (pp. 19-32). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lewis, G. (2006). Virtual Thailand: the Media and Cultural Politics in Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.
New York: Routledge Curzon.

Lewis, J. (2013). Beyond Consumer Capitalism: Media and the Limits to Imagination. UK: Cambridge.

Mackerras, C. (2003). Ethnicity in Asia. New York: Routledge Curzon.

Mahmoud, E. A., Klimsa, P., & Auter, J. P. (2010). Uses and Gratifications of Commercial Websites in Egypt: Towards a New Model. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 3(1+2), 99-120.

Naber, N. (2000). Ambiguous Insiders: An Investigation of Arab American Invisibility. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(1), 37-61.

National Statistic Office Thailand. (2017). Population in the Northeast Region of Thailand. Retrieved from

Phongpit, S., & Hewison, K. (1990). Thai Village Life: Culture and Transition in the Northeast. Bangkok: Mooban Press.

Prince Kromphraya Damrong Official Survey of Monthon Udon and Northeast in 1906 (RE 125). (1995). Bangkok: Foundation of Prince Kromphraya Damrong.

Schliesinger, J. (2000). Ethnic Groups of Thailand: Non-Tai- Speaking Peoples. Thailand: Whites Lotus.

Seidenfaden, E. (1943). Regarding the Customs, Manners, Economics and Languages of the Kha (So) and Phuthai Living in Amphoe Kuchinarai, Changwat Kalasindhu, Monthon Roi Et. Journal of Siam Society, 34(2), 145-181.

Sun, W. (2007). Minority Invisibility: An Asian American Experience. United States: University of America.

Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2017). Sakon Nakhon. Retrieved from

Varangrat, D. (1993). A Comparative Study of Traditional and Cosmopolitan Medical Systems among the So Ethnic Group in Northeastern Thailand: A Study of Diarrheal Disease in Children 0-5 Years. Bangkok: Mahidol University.

Varangrat, S. (1981). A Comparison Study between the Ways of Life of Phuthai People and Thai-So People. Sakon Nakhon: Sakon Nakhon College.

Windahl, S. (1981). Uses and Gratifications at the Crossroads. Mass Communication Review Yearbook, 2, 174-185.

Research Articles


How to Cite
KAITHONG, Benjapa. Comparing Media Use among Ethnic Thai-So in Northeastern Thailand: A Case Study of Kokmoung Village, Photipaisan Village and Nonghoynoi Village. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences), [S.l.], v. 12, n. 2, p. 1-14, may 2019. ISSN 2539-5521. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 31 mar. 2020. doi: