Development of Safety Culture Assessment: A Case Study of Thai Truck Drivers


Supavanee Thimthong NaNanta Sooraksa


     Safety culture assessment is the instrument that can be used to capture employees’ perception about organizational safety culture in various dimensions. The main objective of this research was to investigate the constructs of multidimensional safety culture and consequently to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure Thai truck driver’s perception on safety culture level in the workplace. Safety culture assessment in this study was structured in four dimensions based on accident causation model as (1) organizational support to safety, (2) social support to safety, (3) preconditions for employee safety behavior, and (4) employee safety behavior. Item development was conducted through extensive literature reviews and interviews with subject matter experts using purposive sampling (e.g. 6 truck drivers, 3 logistics personnel, 2 safe-driving trainers, and 1 top management). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to identify sub-factors of each dimension. Eight sub-factors with total of 30 items were emerged as a result of EFA including management commitment to safety, safety rules and training, supervisor support, co-worker support, work conditions, personal conditions, attentive action to safety, and supportive action to safety. Consequently, Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate all the measurement constructs. The results suggested that the four-dimension safety culture model (30 items) had an acceptable fit with the data (RMSEA = 0.044, RMR = 0.020, CFI = 0.997, GFI = 0.989 and composite reliability = 0.8987). Therefore, the result supported the good reliability and validity of newly developed safety culture assessment. The paper also discussed possible future research as well as implications for utilizing safety culture assessment.

Keywords: Safety Culture, Thai Truck Drivers, Accident Causation Model, Four-Dimension Safety Culture, Factor Analysis



Arboleda, A., Morrow, P. C., Crum, M. R., & Shelley, M. C. (2003). Management Practices as Antecedents of Safety Culture within the Trucking Industry: Similarities and Differences by Hierarchical Level. Journal of Safety Research, 34(2), 189–197.

Browne, R. H. (1995). On the Use of a Pilot Sample for Sample Size Determination. Statistics in Medicine, 14(17), 1933–1940.

Chen, G. X., Fang, Y., Guo, F., & Hanowski, R. J. (2016). The Influence of Daily Sleep Patterns of Commercial Truck Drivers on Driving Performance. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 91, 55–63.

Choudhry, R. M., Fang, D., & Mohamed, S. (2007). The Nature of Safety Culture: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art. Safety Science, 45(10), 993–1012.

Cooper, M. D., & Phillips, R. A. (2004). Exploratory Analysis of the Safety Climate and Safety Behavior Relationship. Journal of Safety Research, 35(5), 497–512.

Cox, S. J., & Cheyne, A. J. T. (2000). Assessing Safety Culture in Offshore Environments. Safety Science, 34(1-3), 111–129.

Coyle, I. R., Sleeman, S. D., & Adams, N. (1995). Safety Climate. Journal of Safety Research, 26(4), 247–254.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior.
New York, NY: Plenum Press.

DeJoy, D. M., Schaffer, B. S., Wilson, M. G., Vandenberg, R. J., & Butts, M. M. (2004). Creating Safer Workplaces: Assessing the Determinants and Role of Safety Climate. Journal of Safety Research, 35(1), 81–90.

Department of Land Transport. (2017). The Number of Driving Licenses and Transport Personnel Licenses Classified by Type. Retrieved from

DeVellis, R. F. (2016). Scale Development: Theory and Applications (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2000). Introducing LISREL. London: Sage Publications. http://dx.

Everitt, B. S. (2002). The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Fernández-Muñiz, B., Montes-Peón, J. M., & Vázquez-Ordás, C. J. (2007). Safety Culture: Analysis of the Causal Relationships between its Key Dimensions. Journal of Safety Research, 38(6), 627–641.

Flin, R. (2007). Measuring Safety Culture in Healthcare: A Case for Accurate Diagnosis. Safety Science, 45(6), 653–667.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Gagné, M., & Forest, J. (2008). The Study of Compensation Systems through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory: Reconciling 35 Years of Debate. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 225–232. Retrieved from http://

Glendon, A. I., & Litherland, D. K. (2001). Safety Climate Factors, Group Differences and Safety Behaviour in Road Construction. Safety Science, 39(3), 157–188.

Glendon, A. I., & Stanton, N. A. (2000). Perspectives on Safety Culture. Safety Science, 34(1-3), 193–214.

Guo, B. H. W., Yiu, T. W., & González, V. A. (2016). Predicting Safety Behavior in the Construction Industry: Development and Test of an Integrative Model. Safety Science, 84, 1–11.

Gyekye, S. A., & Salminen, S. (2007). Workplace Safety Perceptions and Perceived Organizational Support: Do Supportive Perceptions Influence Safety Perceptions? International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 13(2), 189–200.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hall, M. E., Blair, E. H., Smith, S. M., & Gorski, J. D. (2013). Development of a Theory-Based Safety Climate Instrument. Journal of Safety, Health & Environmental Research, 9(1), 58–69.

Hinkin, T. R. (2005). Scale Development Principles and Practices. In R. A. Swanson, & E. F. Holton III (Eds.), Research in Organizations: Foundations and Methods of Inquiry (pp. 161-179). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Retrieved from

Hofeditz, M., Nienaber, A-M., Dysvik, A., & Schewe, G. (2017). “Want to” Versus “Have to”: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators as Predictors of Compliance Behavior Intention. Human Resource Management, 56(1), 25–49.

Hofmann, D. A., Morgeson, F. P., & Gerras, S. J. (2003). Climate as a Moderator of the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange and Content Specific Citizenship: Safety Climate as an Exemplar. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 170–178.

Huang, Y-H., Lee, J., McFadden, A. C., Murphy, L. A., Robertson, M. M., Cheung, J. H., & Zohar, D. (2016). Beyond Safety Outcomes: An Investigation of the Impact of Safety Climate on Job Satisfaction, Employee Engagement and Turnover Using Social Exchange Theory as the Theoretical Framework. Applied Ergonomics, 55, 248–257.

Huang, Y-H., Zohar, D., Robertson, M. M., Garabet, A., Lee, J., & Murphy, L. A. (2013). Development and Validation of Safety Climate Scales for Lone Workers Using Truck Drivers as Exemplar. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 17, 5–19.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (3rd. ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. Retrieved from

Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M., & Flin, R. (2003). Safety Climate, Safety Management Practice and Safety Performance in Offshore Environments. Safety Science, 41(8), 641–680.

Michael, J. H., Evans, D. D., Jansen, K. J., & Haight, J. M. (2005). Management Commitment to Safety as Organizational Support: Relationships with Non-Safety Outcomes in Wood Manufacturing Employees. Journal of Safety Research, 36(2), 171–179.

Morrow, S., & Coplen, M. (2017). Safety Culture: A Significant Influence on Safety in Transportation. Retrieved from

Neal, A., & Griffin, M. A. (2006). A Study of the Lagged Relationships among Safety Climate, Safety Motivation, Safety Behavior, and Accidents at the Individual and Group Levels. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 946–953.

Neal, A., Griffin, M. A., & Hart, P. M. (2000). The Impact of Organizational Climate on Safety Climate and Individual Behavior. Safety Science, 34(1–3), 99–109.

Ostrom, L., Wilhelmsen, C., & Kaplan, B. (1993). Assessing Safety Culture. Nuclear Safety, 34(2), 163–172.

Reason, J. (1990). Human Error. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reason, J. (1997). Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Reason, J. (2000). Human Error: Models and Management. Bmj, 320(7237), 768–770.

Roberts, M. D., Douglas, M. A., Overstreet R. E., Ogden, J. A., & Kabban, C. M. S. (2018). Development and Validation of a Multi-Level Air Freight Handling Safety Climate Scale. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 59(Part A), 445-462.

Schmitt, N., & Stuits, D. M. (1985). Factors Defined by Negatively Keyed Items: The Result of Careless Respondents? Applied Psychological Measurement, 9, 367-373.

Short, J., Boyle, L., Shackelford, S., Inderbitzen, B., & Bergoffen, G. (2007). The Role of Safety Culture in Preventing Commercial Motor Vehicle Crashes. In TRB Commercial Truck & Bus Safety Synthesis Program, CTBSSP Synthesis 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies of Sciences Engineering Medicine. Retrieved from

Solís-Salazar, M. (2015). The Dilemma of Combining Positive and Negative Items in Scales. Psicothema, 27(2), 192–199. DOI: 10.7334/psicothema2014.266.

Strycker, R. (2011). Looking for a 21st Century Solution for Safety Performance: Integrating Personal and Process Safety. Austin, Texas: JMJ Associates. Retrieved from

Teare, M. D., Dimairo, M., Shephard, N., Hayman, A., Whitehead, A., & Walters, S. J. (2014). Sample Size Requirements to Estimate Key Design Parameters from External Pilot Randomised Controlled Trials:
A Simulation Study. Trials, 15(264), 1-13.

Wiegmann, D. A., & Shappel, S. A. (2003). A Human Error Approach to Aviation Accident Analysis. Burlington: Ashgate.

Wiegmann, D. A., Zhang, H., von Thaden, T. L., Sharma, G., & Gibbons, A. M. (2004). Safety Culture: An Integrative Review. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(2), 117–134.

Williamson, A. M., Feyer, A-M., Cairns, D., & Biancotti, D. (1997). The Development of a Measure of Safety Climate: the Role of Safety Perceptions and Attitudes. Safety Science, 25(1–3), 15–27.

Wills, A. R., Watson, B., & Biggs, H. C. (2006). Comparing Safety Climate Factors as Predictors of Work-Related Driving Behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 37(4), 375–383.

World Health Organization (WHO). (n.d.). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved from

Wu, X., Liu, Q., Zhang, L., Skibniewski, M. J., & Wang, Y. (2015). Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation on Construction Sites. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 78, 58–72.

Yang, B. (2005). Factor Analysis Methods. In R. A. Swanson, & E. F. Holton III (Eds.), Research in Organizations: Foundations and Methods of Inquiry (pp. 181-199). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Zhou, F., & Jiang, C. (2015). Leader-Member Exchange and Employees’ Safety Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Safety Climate. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 5014–5021.

Zohar, D. (1980). Safety Climate in Industrial Organizations: Theoretical and Applied Implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), 96–102.

Zohar, D., & Luria, G. (2005). A Multilevel Model of Safety Climate: Cross-Level Relationships between Organization and Group-Level Climates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 616–628.

Research Articles


How to Cite
THIMTHONG, Supavanee; SOORAKSA, NaNanta. Development of Safety Culture Assessment: A Case Study of Thai Truck Drivers. Journal of Community Development Research (Humanities and Social Sciences), [S.l.], v. 12, n. 2, p. 49-64, may 2019. ISSN 2539-5521. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 june 2019. doi: