Flow is an effective mental state in which an individual is so involved in an activity that time or space seem not to matter. This article investigates the “flow state” of illegal transborder Mon labours (ITMLs) from their home town in Mon State, Myanmar to Thailand during 2015-2017. The author employed qualitative research including interview in-depth and observations with thirty ITMLs. Then, the Boredom Proneness Checklist (BPC) were adopted to describe a negative experience of ITMLs. The flow state of optimal experience during their illegal transportations on AH1, Thailand revealed four motivational drivers of ITMLs. These were 1) cultural diffusion of passive, acceptance and boredom about their origin; 2) depression and inability to control their lives based on their own individual effort and creativity; 3) their personal skills of coverture equal required challenges; and 4) the holistic and joyful experience with total involvement during their journeys. For the ITMLs, the time of transportation was a motivating experience, especially for achieving their goal. The “flow” during transportation not only created self-satisfaction but also increased ability to 1) confront more challenging tasks; 2) learn to set clearer and higher goals for quality living; 3) control over individual actions; 4) forget about difficulties in time and space; and 5) establish a stronger sense of self-reliance.
Keywords: Flow Theory, ITMLs
Bazeley, P., & Dottridge, M. (2011). Asia Regional Trafficking in Persons (ARTIP) Project, Aidworks Initiative Number ING262: Independent Completion Report. Canberra: Australian Agency for International Development.
Bosswell, C., & Straubhaar, T. (2004). The Illegal Employment of Foreign Workers: An Overview. Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, 39(1), 4-7.
Britannica Encyclopedia. (2016). Myanmar: The Mon. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/
Buadaeng, B. (2012). Thai-Myanmar and Borderless of Health Problem. In P. Sirasoonthorn (Ed.), Creative Social Development: Opportunity or Crisis in ASEAN Community (pp. 190-208). Phitsanulok: Silver Star Publication.
Buadaeng, B., & Siripornpaiboon, T. (2015). Health Security of People Surrounding Mae La Temporary Shelter, Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province. In the 5th National Academic Conference, Research Science: Phayao University, Naresuan University, and Burapha University (pp. 1-12). Phayao: Phayao University.
Burton, J. (1990). Conflict: Basic Human Needs. New York: St. Martins Press.
Chassamboulli, A., & Peri, G. (2015). The Labor Market Effects of Reducing the Number of Illegal Immigrants. Review of Economic Dynamics, 18(4), 792-821.
Cockerham, G. B., & Cockerham, W. C. (2010). Health & Globalization. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1969). The Americanization of Rock Climbing. University of Chicago Magazine, 61(6), 20-27.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(1), 93-94.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2013). Flow: The Psychology of Happiness. London, UK: Random House.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The System Model of Creativity: The Collected Works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Dordrecht: Springer.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Graef, R. (1979). Flow and the Quality of Experience in Everyday Life. (Unpublished Manuscript). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal Experience in Work and Leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(5), 815-822.
Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1982). The Development of Self-Understanding from Infancy through Adolescence. Child Development, 53(4), 841-864.
Farmer, R., & Sundberg, N. D. (1986). Boredom Proneness: The Development and Correlates of a New Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50(1), 4-17.
Foreign Workers Administration Office. (2016). Statistics of Foreign Workers. Retrieved from http://doe.go.th
Foster, B. L. (1972). Mon Society and Culture in Thailand. JSS, 60, 307-332.
Greenspan, S. I., & Shanker, S. G. (2005). The First Idea: How Symbols, Language and Intelligence Evolved from Our Primate Ancestors to Modern Humans. Brain, 128(7), 1737-1740.
Halliday, R. (1917). The Mons of Burma and Thailand, Vol. 1: The Talaings. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Press.
Halliday, R. (2000). The Mons of Burma and Thailand, Vol. 1: The Talaings (Re-printed from the 1917 ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Press.
Hodal, K. (2016). Slavery and Trafficking Continue in Thai Fishing Industry, Claim Activists. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/feb/25/slavery-trafficking-thai-fishing-industry-environmental-justice-foundation
Kiili, K., Lainema, T., de Freitas, S., & Arnab, S. (2014). Flow Framework for Analyzing the Quality of Educational Games. Entertainment Computing, 5(4), 367-377.
Lederer, K., Galtung, J., & Antal, D. (1980). Human Needs: A Contribution to the Current Debate. Cambridge, Mass: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain.
Maslow, A. H. (1965). Humanistic Science and Transcendent Experiences. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 5(2), 219-227.
McAdams, D. P. (1985). Power, Intimacy, and the Life Story: Personological Inquiries into Identity. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
Polanyi, K. (1957). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press.
Rubenstein, R. E., & Crocker, J. (1994). Challenging Huntington. Foreign Policy, 96(Autumn), 113-128.
UNHCR-The UN Refugee Agency. (n.d.). Refugee Population in Thailand. Retrieved from https://www.
U.S. Department of State, Diplomacy in Action. (2017). Thailand: 2017 Trafficking in Persons Reports. Retrieved from https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271297.htm
Vodanovich, S. J., Wallace, J. C., & Kass, S. J. (2005). A Confirmatory Approach to the Factor Structure of the Boredom Proneness Scale: Evidence for a Two-Factor Short Form. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85(3), 295-303.