Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides on Neurological Impairment

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Ajchamon Thammachai Ratana Sapbamrer

Abstract

        Exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) was found to be associated with an increasing prevalence of neurological symptoms, neuropsychological function and involved in postural balance. However, available scientific data is limited. Therefore, the aim of this article was to review scientific evidence published on the effects of OPs on neurological impairment. The topics presented in the article are as follows: 1) organophosphate pesticide use and exposure, 2) mechanism of OPs toxicity on the neurological system 3) tools for assessment of the neurological system 4) effect of exposure to OPs on neurological signs 5) effect of exposure to OPs on neuropsychological functioning and 6) effect of exposure to OPs on postural balance. Considerable evidence suggests that electrophysiological changes include abnormalities point to remodeling of the motor unit, abnormal small and large nerve fiber function, reduced compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude and ulnar F-wave, abnormal ulnar, tibial, peroneal, and sural nerve conduction. OPs exposure has been implicated in cognitive impairment including deficits of memory, attention, perception and visuospatial function, executive function, language, IQ, and other neuropsychological implications include psychiatric disorders, anxiety, insomnia, major depression, and dementia. A greater postural sway with exposure to OPs than in the unexposed. This article recommends future studies and possibilities for incorporating sensitive health outcomes. The measurement of OPs monitoring on a larger scale is warranted.


Keywords: insecticides, neurological impairment, neuropsychological function, organophosphate pesticides, postural balance

References

Alahakoon, C., Dassanayake, T. L., Gawarammana, I. B., Sedgwick, E. M., Weerasinghe, V. S., Abdalla, A., . . . Buckley, N. A. (2018). Prediction of organophosphorus insecticide-induced intermediate syndrome with stimulated concentric needle single fibre electromyography. PloS One, 13(9), e0203596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0203596
Albers, J. W., Garabrant, D. H., Schweitzer, S., Garrison, R. P., Richardson, R. J., & Berent, S. (2004a). Absence of sensory neuropathy among workers with occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos. Muscle and Nerve, 29(5), 677-686. doi:10.1002/mus.20007
Albers, J. W., Garabrant, D. H., Schweitzer, S. J., Garrison, R. P., Richardson, R. J., & Berent, S. (2004b). The effects of occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos on the peripheral nervous system: a prospective cohort study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61(3), 201-211. doi:10.1136/oem.2003.
008847
Baldi, I., Lebailly, P., Mohammed-Brahim, B., Letenneur, L., Dartigues, J. F., & Brochard, P. (2003). Neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to pesticides in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(5), 409-414. doi:10.1093/aje/kwf216
Bird, S. B., Krajacic, P., Sawamoto, K., Bunya, N., Loro, E., & Khurana, T. S. (2016). Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1374(1), 86-93. doi:10.1111/nyas.13111
Boostani, R., Mellat, A., Afshari, R., Derakhshan, S., Saeedi, M., Rafeemanesh, E., & Mellat, M. (2014). Delayed polyneuropathy in farm sprayers due to chronic low dose pesticide exposure. Iran Red Crescent Med J, 16(5), e5072. doi:10.5812/ircmj.5072
Corral, S. A., de Angel, V., Salas, N., Zuniga-Venegas, L., Gaspar, P. A., & Pancetti, F. (2017). Cognitive impairment in agricultural workers and nearby residents exposed to pesticides in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 62, 13-19. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2017.05.003
Costa, L. G. (2018). Organophosphorus Compounds at 80: Some Old and New Issues. Toxicological Sciences, 162(1), 24-35. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfx266
Crinnion, W. J. (2010). The CDC fourth national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals: what it tells us about our toxic burden and how it assist environmental medicine physicians. Alternative Medicine Review, 15(2), 101-109.
Dick, R. B., Steenland, K., Krieg, E. F., & Hines, C. J. (2001). Evaluation of acute sensory--motor effects and test sensitivity using termiticide workers exposed to chlorpyrifos. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 23(4), 381-393.
Farahat, T. M., Abdelrasoul, G. M., Amr, M. M., Shebl, M. M., Farahat, F. M., & Anger, W. K. (2003). Neurobehavioural effects among workers occupationally exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(4), 279-286. doi:10.1136/oem.60.4.279
Flaskos, J. (2012). The developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorus insecticides: a direct role for the oxon metabolites. Toxicol Lett, 209(1), 86-93. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.11.026
Galloway, T., & Handy, R. (2003). Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides. Ecotoxicology, 12(1-4), 345-363. doi:10.1023/a:1022579416322
Glynn, P. (2006). A mechanism for organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. Toxicology Letters, 162(1), 94-97. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.10.012
Haliga, R. E., Morarasu, B. C., Ursaru, M., Irimioaia, V., & Sorodoc, L. (2018). New insights into the organophosphate-induced intermediate syndrome. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju, 69(2), 191-195. doi:10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3121
Hayden, K. M., Norton, M. C., Darcey, D., Ostbye, T., Zandi, P. P., Breitner, J. C., . . . Cache County Study, I. (2010). Occupational exposure to pesticides increases the risk of incident AD: the Cache County study. Neurology, 74(19), 1524-1530. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dd4423
Hofmann, J. N., Keifer, M. C., Furlong, C. E., De Roos, A. J., Farin, F. M., Fenske, R. A., . . . Checkoway, H. (2009). Serum cholinesterase inhibition in relation to paraoxonase-1 (PON1) status among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(9), 1402-1408. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900682
Hongsibsong, S., Sittitoon, N., & Sapbamrer, R. (2017). Association of health symptoms with low-level exposure to organophosphates, DNA damage, AChE activity, and occupational knowledge and practice among rice, corn, and double-crop farmers. J Occup Health, 59(2), 165-176. doi:10.1539/joh.16-0107-OA
Ismail, A. A., Bodner, T. E., & Rohlman, D. S. (2012). Neurobehavioral performance among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators: a meta-analytic study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 69(7), 457-464. doi:10.1136/oemed-2011-100204
Jalali, N., Balali-Mood, M., Jalali, I., & Shakeri, M. T. (2011). Electrophysiological changes in patients with acute organophosphorous pesticide poisoning. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 108(4), 251-255. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00652.x
Jamal, G. A., Hansen, S., Pilkington, A., Buchanan, D., Gillham, R. A., Abdel-Azis, M., . . . Ballantyne, J. P. (2002). A clinical neurological, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological study of sheep farmers and dippers exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(7), 434-441. doi:10.1136/oem.59.7.434
Jayasinghe, S. S., Pathirana, K. D., & Buckley, N. A. (2012). Effects of acute organophosphorus poisoning on function of peripheral nerves: a cohort study. PloS One, 7(11), e49405. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.
0049405
Jokanovic, M. (2018). Neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus pesticides and possible association with neurodegenerative diseases in man: A review. Toxicology, 410, 125-131. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2018.
09.009
Kamel, F., Engel, L. S., Gladen, B. C., Hoppin, J. A., Alavanja, M. C., & Sandler, D. P. (2005). Neurologic symptoms in licensed private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(7), 877-882. doi:10.1289/ehp.7645
Kamel, F., & Hoppin, J. A. (2004). Association of pesticide exposure with neurologic dysfunction and disease. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(9), 950-958. doi:10.1289/ehp.7135
Kamel, F., Rowland, A. S., Park, L. P., Anger, W. K., Baird, D. D., Gladen, B. C., . . . Sandler, D. P. (2003). Neurobehavioral performance and work experience in Florida farmworkers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(14), 1765-1772. doi:10.1289/ehp.6341
Kim, S., Nussbaum, M. A., Laurienti, P. J., Chen, H., Quandt, S. A., Barr, D. B., & Arcury, T. A. (2018). Exploring Associations Between Postural Balance and Levels of Urinary Organophosphorus Pesticide Metabolites. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(2), 174-179. doi:10.1097/
JOM.0000000000001194
Kimura, K., Yokoyama, K., Sato, H., Nordin, R. B., Naing, L., Kimura, S., . . . Araki, S. (2005). Effects of pesticides on the peripheral and central nervous system in tobacco farmers in Malaysia: studies on peripheral nerve conduction, brain-evoked potentials and computerized posturography. Industrial Health, 43(2), 285-294. doi:10.2486/indhealth.43.285
Liu, H., Hanchenlaksh, C., Povey, A. C., & de Vocht, F. (2015). Pesticide residue transfer in Thai farmer families: using structural equation modeling to determine exposure pathways. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(1), 562-569. doi:10.1021/es503875t
London, L., Beseler, C., Bouchard, M. F., Bellinger, D. C., Colosio, C., Grandjean, P., . . . Stallones, L. (2012). Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures. Neurotoxicology, 33(4), 887-896. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2012.01.004
Lukaszewicz-Hussain, A. (2010). Role of oxidative stress in organophosphate insecticide toxicity - Short review. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 98(2), 145-150. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2010.07.006
Mangas, I., Vilanova, E., Estevez, J., & Franca, T. C. C. (2016). Neurotoxic Effects Associated with Current Uses of Organophosphorus Compounds. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 27(5), 809-825. doi:10.5935/0103-5053.20160084
Norkaew, S., Lermaharit, S., Wilaiwan, W., & Siriwong, W. (2015). An association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and parkinsonism amongst people in and agricutural area in Ubon Ratchthani Province, Thailand. 66(1), 21-26.
Peiris-John, R. J., Ruberu, D. K., Wickremasinghe, A. R., Smit, L. A., & van der Hoek, W. (2002). Effects of occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides on nerve and neuromuscular function. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44(4), 352-357.
Pilkington, A., Buchanan, D., Jamal, G. A., Gillham, R., Hansen, S., Kidd, M., . . . Soutar, C. A. (2001). An epidemiological study of the relations between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and indices of chronic peripheral neuropathy and neuropsychological abnormalities in sheep farmers and dippers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(11), 702-710. doi:10.1136/oem.58.11.702
Ranjbar, A., Solhi, H., Mashayekhi, F. J., Susanabdi, A., Rezaie, A., & Abdollahi, M. (2005). Oxidative stress in acute human poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides; a case control study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 20(1), 88-91. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2004.10.007
Read, D. J., Li, Y., Chao, M. V., Cavanagh, J. B., & Glynn, P. (2009). Neuropathy target esterase is required for adult vertebrate axon maintenance. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(37), 11594-11600. doi:10.1523/
jneurosci.3007-09.2009
Rivera, E. P., Siriwong, W., Taneepanichskul, N., Norkaew, S., & Robson, M. G. (2016). Health Risk Related to Pesticide Exposure in the Agriculture System in Thailand: A Systematic Review.pdf>. J health Res, 30, supplement 1. doi:10.14456/jhr.2016.69
Rothlein, J., Rohlman, D., Lasarev, M., Phillips, J., Muniz, J., & McCauley, L. (2006). Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and non-agricultural Hispanic workers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(5), 691-696. doi:10.1289/ehp.8182
Salehcheh, M., Kakantari, H., Javad Khodayar, M. J., & Jahangiri, A. (2014). Genotyping Paraoxonase Polymorphism in Iranian Farmers Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides. International Journal of Pharmacology, 10(8), 513-518.
Sapbamrer, R. (2018). Pesticide Use, Poisoning, and Knowledge and Unsafe Occupational Practices in Thailand. New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, 28(2), 283-302. doi:10.1177/1048291118759311
Sapbamrer, R., & Hongsibsong, S. (2014). Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67(1), 60-67. doi:10.1007/s00244-014-0014-x
Sapbamrer, R., Hongsibsong, S., Sittitoon, N., & Amput, P. (2019). DNA damage and adverse neurological outcomes among garlic farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 72, 103241. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2019.103241
Sapbamrer, R., & Nata, S. (2014). Health symptoms related to pesticide exposure and agricultural tasks among rice farmers from Northern Thailand. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 19(1), 12-20. doi:10.1007/s12199-013-0349-3
Schroeder, R. W., Martin, P. K., & Walling, A. (2019). Neuropsychological Evaluations in Adults. American Family Physician, 99(2), 101-108.
Sedgwick, E. M., & Senanayake, N. (1997). Pathophysiology of the intermediate syndrome of organophosphorus poisoning. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 62(2), 201-202. doi:10.1136/jnnp.62.2.201
Serrano-Medina, A., Ugalde-Lizarraga, A., Bojorquez-Cuevas, M. S., Garnica-Ruiz, J., Gonzalez-Corral, M. A., Garcia-Ledezma, A., . . . Cornejo-Bravo, J. M. (2019). Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Farmers Associated with Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in a Rural Village of Northwest Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(5). doi:10.3390/ijerph1605
0689
Singh, N., Chhillar, N., Banerjee, B., Bala, K., Basu, M., & Mustafa, M. (2013). Organochlorine pesticide levels and risk of Alzheimer's disease in north Indian population. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 32(1), 24-30. doi:10.1177/0960327112456315
Starks, S. E., Hoppin, J. A., Kamel, F., Lynch, C. F., Jones, M. P., Alavanja, M. C., . . . Gerr, F. (2012). Peripheral nervous system function and organophosphate pesticide use among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(4), 515-520. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103944
Steenland, K., Dick, R. B., Howell, R. J., Chrislip, D. W., Hines, C. J., Reid, T. M., . . . Knott, C. (2000). Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(4), 293-300. doi:10.1289/ehp.00108293
Sunwook, K., Nussbaum, M. A., Quandt, S. A., Laurienti, P. J., & Arcury, T. A. (2016). Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(2), 133-139. doi:10.1097/jom.00000000
00000655
Tan, D. H., Peng, S. Q., Wu, Y. L., Wang, Y. M., Lu, C. F., & Yan, C. H. (2009). Chronic organophosphate (OP)-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a withdrawal syndrome. Medical Hypotheses, 72(4), 405-406. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.11.026
Wadia, R. S., Sadagopan, C., Amin, R. B., & Sardesai, H. V. (1974). Neurological manifestations of organophosphorous insecticide poisoning. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 37(7), 841-847. doi:10.1136/jnnp.37.7.841
Zucchella, C., Federico, A., Martini, A., Tinazzi, M., Bartolo, M., & Tamburin, S. (2018). Neuropsychological testing. Practical Neurology, 18(3), 227-237. doi:10.1136/practneurol-2017-001743

Section
Review Articles

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
THAMMACHAI, Ajchamon; SAPBAMRER, Ratana. Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides on Neurological Impairment. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 29, n. 1, p. 1-20, june 2020. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <http://www.journal.nu.ac.th/NUJST/article/view/Vol-9-No-1-2021-1-20>. Date accessed: 04 mar. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2021.1.