Contaminated Heavy Metals in Rice of Surin Province, Thailand


Napaporn Kheangkhun Jutamart Sringam Waraporn Kumpinit Amnauy Wattanakornsiri Pongthipun Phuengphai


         The purposes of this research were to investigate the types and quantities of contaminated heavy metals in rice, and to compare the heavy metals contaminated in jasmine rice, black rice and germinated brown rice in Surin province, Thailand, with the total of 15 rice samples. The experiment was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique. The results showed that all rice samples had the amount of chromium in the range of 0.248-0.660 mg/kg. However, the detected amounts did not exceed the highest standard of chromium in cereal agricultural products according to the national standards of People's Republic of China defined as 1.00 mg/kg. In addition, the amount of lead in the samples was not found, which the highest standard of lead given by European Communities and Food Standard Australia and New Zealand was defined as not more than 0.2 mg/kg. Therefore, all the rice samples used in this research were considered at safety level for consumption. This basic information is useful for consumers taking consideration to consume rice of Surin province safely.

Keywords: Jasmine rice, Black rice, Germinated brown rice, Heavy metal


Adomako, E. E., Williams, P. N., Deacon, C., & Meharg, A. A. (2011). Inorganic arsenic and trace elements in Ghanaian grain staples. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2435-2442.
Ahmed, M. K., Shaheen, N., Islam, M. S., Habibullah-al-Mamun, M., Islam, S., Mohiduzzaman, M., & Bhattacharjee, L. (2015). Dietary intake of trace elements from highly consumed cultured fish (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) and human health risk implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere, 128, 284–292.
Al-Saleh, I., & Abduljabbar, M. (2017). Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic) in commonly imported rice grains (Oryza sativa) sold in Saudi Arabia and their potential health risk. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220(7), 1168-1178.
Bundschuh, J., Nath, B., Bhattacharya, P., Liu, C-W., Armienta, M. A., López, M. V. M., … Filho, A. T. (2012). Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective. Science of the Total Environment, 429, 92–106.
Chen, H., Tang, Z., Wang, P., & Zhao, F-J. (2018). Geographical variations of cadmium and arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation in Chinese rice. Environmental Pollution, 238, 482-490.
Cheun-im, N., Sinbuathong, N., Ingkapradit, W., Inklang, V., & Hom-ngarm, V. (2009). Contamination of heavy metals in rice from organic paddy field: Proceedings of the 47th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Kasetsart, 17-20 March 2009 (pp. 276-280 ). Bangkok: Kasetsart University,
Fang, Y., Sun, X., Yang, W., Ma, N., Xin, Z., Fu, J., … Hu, Q. (2014). Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China. Food Chemistry, 147, 147-151.
FAO/WHO. (2009). Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. In M. Sheffer (Ed.), Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2013). Standard 1.4.2 Contaminants and natural toxicants. Food Standards Code, 53, 4.
Jahed Khaniki, G., & Zazoli, M. (2005). Cadmium and lead contents in rice (Oryza sativa) in the north of Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 7, 1026–1029.
Kayee, P. (1999). Rice. Phuket Rajabhat University, Phuket.
Kingsawat, R., & Roachanakanan, R. (2011). Accumulation and distribution of some heavy metals in water, soil and rice fields along the Pradu and Phi Lok canals, Samut Songkhram province, Thailand. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 9(1), 38-48.
Kwon, J. C., Nejad, Z. D., & Jung, M. C. (2017). Arsenic and heavy metals in paddy soil and polished rice contaminated by mining activities in Korea. Catena. Part 1, 148, 92-100.
Londonio, A., Morzán, E., & Smichowski, P. (2019). Determination of toxic and potentially toxic elements in rice and rice-based products by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.Food Chemistry, 284, 149-154.
Meharg, A. A., Lombi, E., Williams, P. N., Scheckel, K. G., Feldmann, J., Raab, A., … Islam, R. (2008). Speciation and localization of arsenic in white and brown grains. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 1051-1057.
Meharg, A. A., Williams, P. N., Aldomako, E., Lawgali, Y. Y., Deacom, C., Villada, A., … Yanai, J. (2009). Geographical variation in total and inorganic arsenic content of polished (white) rice. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 1612-1617.
Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic China. (2013). National Food safety standard maximum levels of contaminants in food. Retrieved from of_contaminants_in_food.pdf
Mu, T., Wu, T., Zhou, T., Li, Z., Ouyang, Y., Jiang, J., … & Wu. L. (2019). Geographical variation in arsenic, cadmium, and lead of soils and rice in the major rice producing regions of China. Science of The Total Environment, 677(10), 373-381.
Neeratanaphan, L., Khamma, S., Benchawattananon, R., Ruchuwararak, P., Appamaraka, S., & Intamat, S. (2017). Heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) near electronic waste dumps and related human health risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 23(5), 1086–1098.
Nookabkaew, S., Rangkadilok, N., Mahidol, C., Promsuk, G., & Satayavivad, J. (2013). Determination of arsenic species in rice from Thailand and other Asian countries using simple extraction and HPLC-ICP-MS analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(28), 6991-6998.
Official Journal of the European Union. (2014). The annex to regulation (EU) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels of cadmium in foodstuffs. Retrieved from EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32014R0488
Onsanit, S., Ke, C., Wang, X., Wang, K. J., & Wang, W-X. (2010). Trace elements in two marine fish cultured in fish cages in Fujian province, China. Environmental Pollution, 158, 1334–1342.
Phuong, T. D., Kokot, S., Chuong, P. V., & Tong Khiem, D. (1999). Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 1. Sampling, analysis and comparison with previous studies. Analyst, 124, 553–560.
Rice family Thailand. (2019). Surin Jasmine Rice. Retrieved from
Roya, A. Q., & Ali, M. S. (2017). Heavy metals in rice samples on the Torbat-Heidarieh market, Iran. Food Additives & Contaminants.: Part B, 10(1), 59–63.
Siri-anusornsak, W., Soiklom, S., & Thanaruksa, R. (2017). Determination of Heavy Metals Cd, Cr and Pb)
in Thai Rice. Proceedings of The 54th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 2 – 5 February 2016 (pp. 65 -71). Kasetsart University: Bangkok.
Xiao, G., Hu, Y., Li, N., & Yang, D. (2018). Spatial autocorrelation analysis of monitoring data of heavy metals in rice in China. Food Control, 89, 32-37.
Xie, L. H., Tang, S. Q., Wei, X. J., Shao, G. N., Jiao, G. A., Sheng, Z. H., … Hu, P. S. (2017). The cadmium and lead content of the grain produced by leading Chinese rice cultivars. Food Chemistry, 217, 217-224.

Research Articles


How to Cite
KHEANGKHUN, Napaporn et al. Contaminated Heavy Metals in Rice of Surin Province, Thailand. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 28, n. 1, p. 55-64, feb. 2020. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 08 mar. 2021. doi: