The Potential of Activated Carbon Production from Leucaena leucocephala charcoal and Application in Melanoidin Removal

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Bang-orn Insoongnoen Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn Boonchai Wichitsathian

Abstract

     Melanoidins are brown recalcitrant compounds present in the effluents of ethanol production, and brewery industry. It is difficult to biodegrade by the conventional treatment processes. Adsorption process was reported to have achieved more than 90% of melanoidin removal. However, due to its high operating cost has limited its use for wastewater treatment, alternative low-cost adsorbents are finding from various materials such as plant waste. The L. leucocephala was reported as a potential material for adsorbent due to their properties. The aim of this work was to produce the low-cost adsorbent L. leucocephala activated carbon (LAC) derive from L. leucocephala char by CO2 activation method. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions for melanoidin adsorbed on LAC samples. Kinetic data and adsorption equilibrium isotherm were done in the batch experiments. The results showed the LAC samples had the high surface areas in the range of 823.63-1,596.20 m2/g. Maximum adsorption capacity of melanoidin on the LAC samples were found in the range of 588.24-1,666.67 mg/g. The optimum adsorption conditions of the LAC were obtained at the contact time of 480 min, the initial melanoidin concentration of 1,000 mg/L, the initial solution pH of 2, the agitation speed of 100 rpm and the temperature of 65˚C. This finding is a useful tool for scale-up and design purposes to apply for wastewater treatment of industry. It can be concluded that the LAC is a potential material to produce as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of melanoidin from wastewater.


 Keywords: Melanoidin, Adsorption, Leucocephala, Activated carbon, Low-cost adsorbent

References

Argun, M.E., & Dursun, S. (2008). A new approach to modification of natural adsorbent for heavy metal adsorption. Bioresource Technology, 99(7), 2516–2527.
Attia, A. A., Girgis, B. S., & Fathy, N. A. (2008). Removal of methylene blue by carbons derived from peach stones by H3PO4 activation: Batch and column studies. Dyes and Pigments, 76(1), 282-289.
Cazetta, A.L., Vargas, A.M.M., & Nogami, E.M. (2011). NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from coconut shell: Kinetics and equilibrium studies from the methylene blue adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 174, 117–125.
Chowdhury, Z. Z., Zain, S. M., & Khan, M. S. (2012). Preparation and characterizations of activated carbon from kenaf fiber for equilibrium adsorption studies of copper from wastewater, Korean. Chemical Engineering Journal, 29, 1187-1195.
Danish, M., Hashim, R., Ibrahim, M. N. M., Rafatullah, M., & Sulaiman, O. (2012). Surface characterization and comparative adsorption properties of Cr(VI) on pyrolysed adsorbents of Acacia mangium wood and Phoenix dactylifera L. stone carbon. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 97, 19-28.
Ding, L., Zou, B., Gao, W., Liu, Q., Wang, Z., Guo, Y., … Liu, Y., (2014). Adsorption of Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution using treated rice husk-based activated carbon. Colloids and Surfaces, 446, 1-7.
Dolphen, R., & Thiravetyan, P. (2011). Adsorption of melanoidins by chitin nanofibers. Chemical Engineering Journal, 166, 890-895.
Dural, M. U., Cavas, L., Papageorgiou, S. K., & Katsaros, F.K. (2011). Methylene blue adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Posidonia oceanica (L.) dead leaves: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 168(1), 77–85.
Figaro, S., Louisy-Louis, S., Lambert, J., Ehrhardt, J.-J., Ouensanga, A., & Gaspard S. (2006). Adsorption Studies of Recalcitrant Compounds of Molasses Spent wash on Activated Carbons. Water Research, 40, 3456–3466.
Figaro, S., Avril, J., Brouers, F., Ouensanga, A., & Gaspard, S. (2009). Adsorption studies of molasses wastewaters on activated carbon: modelling with a new fractal kinetic equation and evaluation of kinetic models. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161, 649–656.
Foo, K. Y., & Hameed, B. H. (2011). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue via microwave assisted K2CO activation. Bioresource Technology, 102, 9794-9799.
Gonzalez, T., Terron, M. C., Yague, S., Zapico, E., Galletti, G. C. & Gonzalez, A. E. (2000). Pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry monitoring of fungal-biotreated distillery wastewater using Trametes. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 14, 1417–1424.
Hayashi, J., Horikawa, T., Takeda, I., Muroyama, K., & Nasir Ani, F. (2002). Preparing activated carbon from various nutshells by chemical activation with K2CO3, Carbon 40, 2381–2386.
Hou, C.-H., Liu, N.-L., & His, H.-C. (2015). Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes. Chemosphere, 141, 71–79.
Kacan, E. (2016). Optimum BET surface area for activated carbon produced from textile sewage sludge and its application as dye removal. Environmental Management, 166, 116-123.
Karacetin, G., Sivrikaya, S., & Imamoglu, M. (2014). Adsorptionof methylene blue from aqueous solutions by activated car-bon prepared from hazelnut husk using zinc chloride. Journalof Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 110, 270–276.
Kaushik, A., Basu, S., Singh, K., Batra, V. S., & Balakrishnan, M. (2017). Activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse ash for melanoidins recovery. Journal of Environmental Management, 200, 29-34.
Kotsiopoulou, N.G., Liakos, T.I., & Lazaridis, N.K. (2016). Melanoidin chromophores and betaine osmoprotectant separation from aqueous solutions. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 216, 496-502.
Li, K., & Wang, X. (2009). Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) by activated carbon prepared from Spartina alterniflora: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Bioresource Technology, 100(11), 2810–2815.
Liakos, T. I, & Lazaridis, N. K. (2016) Melanoidin removal from molasses effluents by adsorption. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 10, 156–164.
Liang, Z., Wang, Y., Zhou, Y., & Liu, H. (2009). Coagulation removal of melanoidins from biologically treated molasses wastewater using ferric chloride, Chemical Engineering Journal, 152, 88–94.
Molina-Sabio, M., González, M.T., Rodriguez-Reinoso, F., & Sepúlveda-Escribano, A. (1996). Effect of steam and carbon dioxide activation in the micropore size distribution of activated carbon. Carbon, 34, 505–509.
Namasivayam, C., & Kavitha, D. (2002). Removal of Congo red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Dyes Pigments, 54, 47-58.
Ojijo, V. O., Onyango, M.S., Ochieng, A., & Otieno, F. A.O. (2010). Decolourization of Melanoidin Containing Wastewater Using South African Coal Fly Ash. Journal of Chemical and Molecular Engineering, 4(1), 58-64.
Onyango, M. S., Kittinya, J., & Ojijo, O. V. (2011). Sorption of melanoidin onto surfactant modified zeolite. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 17, 385–395.
Patil, A. K. & Shrivastava, V. S. (2012). Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies on the Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul) Seed Pods as an Adsorbent. Journal of Applied Chemical Research, 6(4), 24-36
Priyadarshini, B., Rath, P.P., Behera, S.S., Panda, S.R., Sahoo, T.R., & Parhi, P.K. (2018). Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Isotherm studies on Adsorption of Eriochrome Black-T from aqueous solution using Rutile TiO2. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 10, 012051.
Rodr´ıguez-Reinoso, F., & Molina-Sabio, M. (1992). Activated carbons from lignocellulosic materials by chemical and/or physical activation: an overview. Carbon, 30, 1111–1118.
Simaratanamongkol, A., & Thiravetyan, P. (2010). Decolorization of melanoidin by activated carbon obtained from bagasse bottom ash. Food Engineering Journal, 96, 14–17.
Xiao, H., Peng, H., Deeng, S., Yang, X., Zhang, Y., & Li, Y. (2012). Preparation of activated carbon from edible fungi residue by microwave assisted K2CO3 activation – application in reactive black 5 adsorption from aqueous solution. Bioresource Technology, 111, 127-133.
Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., Afroze, S., & Ang, H. M. (2014). Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: A review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 209, 172-184.
Zhao, Y., Wang, D., Xie, H., Won, S. W., Cui, L., & Wu, G. (2015). Adsorption of Ag (I) from aqueous solution by waste yeast: kinetic, equilibrium and mechanism studies. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 38, 69-77.

Section
Research Articles

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
INSOONGNOEN, Bang-orn; YIMRATTANABOVORN, Jareeya; WICHITSATHIAN, Boonchai. The Potential of Activated Carbon Production from Leucaena leucocephala charcoal and Application in Melanoidin Removal. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 28, n. 1, p. 10-22, feb. 2020. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <http://www.journal.nu.ac.th/NUJST/article/view/Vol-8-No-1-2020-10-22>. Date accessed: 28 feb. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2020.2.