Adsorption of Methylene blue onto Cajeput Tree Bark: Isotherm and Kinetic Studies


Hatairat Sukpreabprom Ratchanee Thongkham Phattra Thaweepornkul


        Cajeput tree bark was used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time and initial methylene blue concentration on adsorption capacity were studied in batch experiments. The experimental results indicated that the optimum pH for methylene blue adsorption was 7 and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 90 minutes. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of cajeput tree bark was found to be 64.43 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were selected to describe the adsorption mechanism. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption kinetics of methylene blue followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. These results showed that cajeput tree bark can be used as an efficient low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Methylene blue, Cajeput tree bark, Langmuir isotherm, Freundlich isotherm, Adsorption kinetic


Abdullah, A. H., Kassim, A., Zainal, Z., Hussien, M. Z., Kuang, D., Ahmad F., & Wooi, O. S. (2001). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from gelam wood bark (Melaleuca cajuputi). Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 7(1), 65-68.
Achmad, A., Kassim, J., Suan, T. K., Amat, R. C., & Seey, T. L. (2012). Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of direct dye onto a novel green adsorbent developed from Uncaria gambir extract. Journal of Physical Science, 23(1), 1-13.
Afroze, S., Sen, T. K., Ang, M., & Nishioka, H. (2015). Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by novel biomass Eucalyptus sheathiana bark: equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(13), 5858-5878.
Amrhar, O., Nassali, H., & Elyoubi, M. S. (2015). Adsorption of a cationic dye, methylene blue, onto moroccan illitic clay. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 6(11), 3054-3065.
Annadurai, G., Juang, R. S., & Lee, D. J. (2002). Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 92(3), 263-274.
Aznar, J. S. (2011). Characterization of activated carbon produced from coffee residues by chemical and physical activation. Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Chemical Science and Engineering.
Baek, M. H., Ijagbemi, C. O., O, S. J., & Kim, D. S. (2010). Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176(1-3), 820-828.
Bharathi, K. S., & Ramesh S. T. (2013). Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review. Applied Water Science, 3(4), 773-790.
Bulut, Y., & Aydın, H. (2006). A kinetics and thermodynamics study of methylene blue adsorption on wheat shells. Desalination, 194(1-3), 259-267.
Budsaereechai, S., Kamwialisak, K., & Ngernyen, Y. (2012). Adsorption of lead, cadmium and copper on natural and acid activated bentonite clay. KKU Research Journal, 17(5), 800-810.
Dawood, S., Sen, T. K., & Phan, C. (2016). Adsorption removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution by bio-char prepared from Eucalyptus sheathiana bark: kinetic, equilibrium, mechanism, thermodynamic and process design. Desalination and water treatment, 57(59), 28964-28980.
Dehvari, M., Ghaneian, M. T., Ebrahimi, A., Jamshidi, B., & Mootab, M. (2016). Removal of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile wastewater by pomegranate seed powder: isotherm and kinetic studies. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering, 5(1), 1-9.
Ertugay, N., & Malkoc, E. (2014). Adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies for methylene blue from aqueous solution by needles of Pinus sylvestris L. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 23(6), 1995-2006.
Ferrero, F. (2007). Dye removal by low cost adsorbents: Hazelnut shells in comparison with wood sawdust. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142(1-2), 144-152.
Fil, B. A., Özmetin, C., & Korkmaz, M. (2012). Cationic dye (methylene blue) removal from aqueous solution by montmorillonite. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 33(10), 3184-3190.
Franca, A. S., Oliveira, L. S., & Ferreira, M. E. (2009). Kinetics and equilibrium studies of methylene blue adsorption by spent coffee grounds. Desalination, 249(1), 267-272.
Gupta, V. K., & Suhas. (2009). Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal - A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(8), 2313-2342.
Hameed, B. H., Mahmoud, D. K., & Ahmad, A. L. (2008). Equilibrium modeling and kinetic studies on the adsorption of basic dye by a low-cost adsorbent: Coconut (Cocos nucifera) bunch waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158(1), 65-72.
Han, R., Wang, Y., Han, P., Shi, J., Yang, J., & Lu, Y. (2006). Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by chaff in batch mode. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137(1), 550–557.
Han, R., Zhang, J., Han, P., Wang, Y., Zhao, Z., & Tang, M. (2009). Study of equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters about methylene blue adsorption onto natural zeolite. Chemical Engineering Journal, 145(3), 496-504.
Hanif, A., Juahir, H., Lananan, F., Kamarudin, M. K. A., Adiana, G., Azemin, A., & Yusra, A. F. I. (2018). Spatial variation of Melaleuca cajuputi powell essential oils. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(1S), 139-155.
Kumar, A., Chaudhary, P., & Verma, P. (2013). Adsorption of reactive red 194 dye from textile effluent by using class F fly ash. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences, 1(2), 111-116.
Mahmoud, M. E., Nabil, G. M., El-Mallah, N. M., Bassiouny, H. I., Kumar, S., & Abdel-Fattah, T. M. (2016). Kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of reactive red 195 A dye from water by modified switchgrass biochar adsorbent. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 37, 156-167.
Mays, T. J. (2007). A new classification of pore sizes. Studies in surface science and catalysis, 160, 57-62.
Nuyim, T. (2002). Potentiality of Melaleuca cajuputi powell cultivation to develop for economic plantation purpose. In P. Chittachumnong (Ed.), In Proceedings of the 7th of silvicultural seminar: Silviculture for Commercial Plantations (pp. 167-179). Bangkok: Kasetsart University.
Paosen, S., Saising, J., Septama, A. W., & Voravuthikunchai, S. P. (2017). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants from Myrtaceae family and characterization of their antibacterial activity. Materials Letters, 209, 201-206.
Radaei, E., Moghaddam, M. R. A., & Arami, M. (2014). Adsorption of reactive blue 19 onto activated carbon prepared from pomegranate residual by phosphoric acid activation: kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Progress in Color, Colorants and Coatings, 7(4), 245-257.
Seey, T. L., & Kassim, M. J. N. M. (2012). Acidic and basic dyes removal by adsorption on chemically treated mangrove barks. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3), 270-276.
Senthilkumaar, S., Varadarajan, P. R., Porkodi, K., & Subbhuraam, C. V. (2005). Adsorption of methylene blue onto jute fiber carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 284(1), 78-82.
Shih, M. C. (2012). Kinetics of the batch adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions onto rice husk: effect of acid-modified process and dye concentration. Desalination and Water Treatment, 37(1-3), 200-214.
Sukpreabprom, H., Arquero, O. A., Naksata, W., Sooksamiti, P., & Janhom, S. (2014). Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions onto bottom ash. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 5(2), 165-170.
Sun, D., Zhang, Z., Wang, M., & Wu, Y. (2013). Adsorption of reactive dyes on activated carbon developed from Enteromorpha prolifera. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 4(7A), 17-26.
Talib, N. A. A., Zakaria, S., Hua, C. C., & Othman, N. K. (2014). Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1614(1), 171-177.
Tichaona, N., Viola, S., Olindah, H., & Munyaradzi, S. (2013). Exploring the biosorption of methylene blue dye onto acid treated sugarcane bagasse. International Journal of Current Research, 5(8), 2169-2175.
Vanaamudan, A., Chavada, B., & Padmaja, P. (2016). Adsorption of reactive blue 21 and reactive red 141 from aqueous solutions onto hydrotalcite. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 4(3), 2617-2627.
Vadivelan, V., & Kumar, K. V. (2005). Equilibrium, kinetics, mechanism, and process design for the sorption of methylene blue onto rice husk. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 286(1), 90-100.
Veeramani, V., Madhu, R., Chen, S. M., Veerakumar, P., Syu, J. J., & Liu, S. B. (2015). Cajeput tree bark derived activated carbons for practical electrochemical detection of vanillin. New Journal of Chemistry, 39(12), 9109-9115.
Veiga, T. R. L. A., Lima, J. T., Dessimoni, A. L. D. A., Pego, M. F. F., Soares, J. R., & Trugilho, P. F. (2017). Different plant biomass characterizations for biochar production. Cerne, 23(4), 529-536.
Vijayakumar, G., Tamilarasan, R., & Dharmendirakumar, M. (2012). Adsorption, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the removal of basic dye rhodamine-B from aqueous solution by the use of natural adsorbent perlite. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 3(1), 157-170.
Vital, R. K., Saibaba, K. V. N., Shaik, K. B., & Gopinath, R. (2016). Dye removal by adsorption: A review. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, 7(6), 1-4.
Yagub, M. T., Sen, T. K., Afroze, S., & Ang, H. M. (2014). Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: A review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 209, 172-184.
Yener, J., Kopac, T., Dogu, G., & Dogu, T. (2008). Dynamic analysis of sorption of methylene blue dye on granular and powdered activated carbon. Chemical Engineering Journal, 144(3), 400–406.
Zhang, J. X., & Ou, L. L. (2013). Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of crystal violet by activated carbon from peanut shells. Water Science & Technology, 67(4), 737-744.

Research Articles


How to Cite
SUKPREABPROM, Hatairat; THONGKHAM, Ratchanee; THAWEEPORNKUL, Phattra. Adsorption of Methylene blue onto Cajeput Tree Bark: Isotherm and Kinetic Studies. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 29, n. 1, p. 86-99, july 2020. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 04 mar. 2021. doi: