An aging population is an increasing world phenomenon that will continue to affect Thailand, and the whole world. One of the factors for achieving a healthy body is to maintain regular physical activity. Normally, aging results experience a significant decline in physical fitness. Exercise will help to improve physical fitness, which is associated with the ability to perform daily tasks. However, suitable exercise regimes for the elderly are still a challenge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of an easy-to-follow home exercise program for 12 weeks. The quasi experiment research design was used for this study. Thirty two healthy elderly were recruited through convenient sampling and their physical fitness assessed before the program started. They were given an exercise plan to follow at home, and were examined after 6 and 12 weeks. All exercises were selected for safety, ease of performance, and without the use of equipment, to improve all aspects of their physical fitness. The groups were asked to perform these exercises regularly –standing on one leg, wall press ups, hamstring stretches, heel and toe raises, calf stretches, and step forward, for the allotted time 5 times a week, for 12 weeks. Comparison of the baseline and post exercise intervention measurements, demonstrated a significant improvement in agility, coordination, grip strength and balance (P<0.01) but not in leg strength and flexibility. In conclusion, a 12 week home exercise training program is beneficial to improve the important variables of physical fitness in elderly people. An exercise frequency of five times per week is recommended in order to maintain a healthy physical function in the elderly.
Keywords: home exercise program, physical fitness, elderly
Binder, E. F., Schechtman, K. B., Ehsani, A. A., Steger-May, K., Brown, M., Sinacore, D. R., . . . Holloszy, J. O. (2002). Effects of exercise training on frailty in community-dwelling older adults: results of a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(12), 1921-1928.
Bohannon, R. W. (2008). Hand-grip dynamometry predicts future outcomes in aging adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 31(1), 3-10.
Brach, J. S., Simonsick, E. M., Kritchevsky, S., Yaffe, K., & Newman, A. B. (2004). The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the health, aging and body composition study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(4), 502-509. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52154.x
Cadore, E. L., Pinto, R. S., Bottaro, M., & Izquierdo, M. (2014). Strength and endurance training prescription in healthy and frail elderly. Aging and Disease, 5(3), 183–195. http://doi.org/10.
Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 126–131.
Chang, M., Kim, H., Shigematsu, R., Nho, H., Nishijima, T., & Tanaka, K. (2001). Functional fitness may be related to life satisfaction in older Japanese adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 53(1), 35-49.
Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., & Skinner, J. S. (2009). American college of sports medicine position stand. exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(7), 1510-1530. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c
Christensen, K., Doblhammer, G., Rau, R., & Vaupel, J. W. (2009). Ageing populations: the challenges ahead. Lancet, 374(9696), 1196–1208. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61460-4
Dunsky, A., Zeev, A., & Netz, Y. (2017). Balance performance is task specific in older adults. BioMed Research International, 2017, 6987017. http://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6987017
Dodds, R. M., Syddall, H. E., Cooper, R., Kuh, D., Cooper, C., & Sayer, A. A. (2016). Global variation in grip strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis of normative data. Age and Ageing, 45(2), 209–216. http://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv192
Esain, I., Gil, S. M., Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I., & Rodriguez-Larrad, A. (2018). Effects of 3 months of detraining on functional fitness and quality of life in older adults who regularly exercise. Aging clinical and experimental research. doi: 10.1007/s40520-018-0990-1
Gomez-Cabello, A., Gonzalez-Aguero, A., Ara, I., Casajus, J. A., & Vicente-Rodriguez, G. (2013). Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on physical fitness in elderly people. Maturitas, 74(3), 276-278. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.12.008
Keogh, J. W., Morrison, S., & Barrett, R. (2010). Strength and coordination training are both effective in reducing the postural tremor amplitude of older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity, 18(1), 43-60.
Ling, C. H. Y., Taekema, D., de Craen, A. J. M., Gussekloo, J., Westendorp, R. G. J., & Maier, A. B. (2010). Handgrip strength and mortality in the oldest old population: the Leiden 85-plus study. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(5), 429–435. http://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.091278
Mendes, R., Sousa, N., Themudo-Barata, J., & Reis, V. (2016). Impact of a community-based exercise programme on physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Gaceta Sanitaria, 30(3), 215-220. doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2016.01.007
Milanovic, Z., Pantelic, S., Trajkovic, N., Sporis, G., Kostic, R., & James, N. (2013). Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 549–556. http://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S44112
Miyamoto, K., Takebayashi, H., Takimoto, K., Miyamoto, S., Morioka, S., & Yagi, F. (2008). A new simple performance test focused on agility in elderly people: The Ten Step Test. Gerontology, 54(6), 365-372. doi: 10.1159/000146787
Nakamura, Y., Tanaka, K., Yabushita, N., Sakai, T., & Shigematsu R. (2007). Effects of exercise frequency on functional fitness in older adult women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 44(2), 163–173.
Nied, R. J., & Franklin, B. (2002). Promoting and prescribing exercise for the elderly. American Family Physician, 65(3),419–426.
Okubo, Y., Osuka, Y., Jung, S., Rafael, F., Tsujimoto, T., Aiba, T., . . . Tanaka, K. (2016). Walking can be more effective than balance training in fall prevention among community-dwelling older adults. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 16(1), 118-125. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12444
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.