Upgrading of Bio-oils from the Fast Pyrolysis of Longan Wood over the Low Cost Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor


Chaturong Paenpong Weerapun Chunluang Niwat Pratoomchai


     The objective of this work was to upgrade the properties of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of longan wood by using a low cost catalyst bed material in the fluidized bed reactor. The experiments in this work were performed in two sets. This first one was studied the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yield and properties of bio-oil in a fluidized bed reactor to determine the optimal conditions for liquid yield. The experiment were carried out at the pyrolysis temperatures of 450, 500 and 550 ºC and sand was used as bed material. The second part was studied the effects of low cost catalyst bed material on the product yields and properties of bio-oil. The experiments were performed at the optimized pyrolysis temperature from the first set of experiments and sand, iron powder and natural zeolite were used as bed materials. The experimental results showed that increasing pyrolysis temperature from 450 - 550 °C reduced bio-oil yield while increasing the gas yields. The optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining highest bio-oil yield for longan wood was 450 °C which gave maximum bio-oil yield of 36.09 wt%. However, when considering the effect of a catalyst bed material which pyrolysis was performed at optimum temperature of 450°C. It was found that the natural zeolite bed gave the highest bio-oil yield of 36.09 wt%. When considering the effect of the catalyst bed materials on bio-oil properties, the sand bed gave the highest pH value (less acidic) and the lowest flash point in comparison with the iron powder and natural zeolite bed. While the bio-oil obtained from natural zeolite bed had the highest higher heating value (HHV) when compared with the sand bed and iron powder bed which the higher heating value of natural zeolite bed is about 2 time of typical bio-oil. Therefore, the term upgrading of bio-oils refers to increasing of heating value and reducing acidic when comparison typical bio-oil.

Keywords: Pyrolysis temperature, Fast pyrolysis, Bed materials, Longan wood pruning, fluidized-bed Reactor


Aho, A., Kumar, N., Eränen, K., Salmi, T., Hupa, M., & Murzin, D. Y. (2008). Catalytic pyrolysis of woody biomass in a fluidized bed reactor: influence of the zeolite structure. Fuel, 87, 2493-2501.
Al-Sabawi, M., Chen, J., & Ng, S. (2012). Fluid catalytic cracking of biomass-derived oils and their blends with petroleum feedstocks : A Review. Energy & Fuels, 26, 5355-5372.
Antonakou, E., Lappas, A., Nilsen, M. H., Bouzga, A., & Stöcker, M. (2006). Evaluation of various types of Al-MCM-41 materials as catalysts in biomass pyrolysis for the production of bio-fuels and chemicals. Fuel, 85, 2202-2212.
Basu, P. (2010). Biomass gasification and pyrolysis: practical design and theory. Kidlington Oxford UK, Elsevier.
Bridgwater, A. V., Meier, D., & Radlein, D. (1999). An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass. Organic Geochemistry, 30, 1479-1493.
Bridgwater, A. V., & Peacocke, G. V. C. (2000). Fast pyrolysis processes for biomass. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4, 1-73.
Chiaramonti, D., Bonini, M., Fratini, E., Tondi, G., Gartner, K., Bridgwater, A. V., Grimm, H. P., Soldaini, I., Webster, A., & Baglioni, P. (2003a). Development of emulsions from biomass pyrolysis liquid and diesel and their use in engines—Part 1: emulsion production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, 85-99.
Chiaramonti, D., Bonini, M., Fratini, E., Tondi, G., Gartner, K., Bridgwater, A. V., Grimm, H. P., Soldaini, I., Webster, A., & Baglioni, P. (2003b). Development of emulsions from biomass pyrolysis liquid and diesel and their use in engines—Part 2: tests in diesel engines. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, 101-111.
Diebold, J. P. (2000). A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils. NERL subcontractor report NREL/SR-570-27613. Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
French, R. J., Black, S. K., Myers, M., Stunkel, J., Gjersing, E., & Iisa, K. (2015). Hydrotreating the organic fraction of biomass pyrolysis oil to a refinery intermediate. Energy & Fuels, 29, 7985-7992.
French, R. J., Stunkel, J., & Baldwin, R. M. (2011). Mild hydrotreating of bio-oil: effect of reaction severity and fate of oxygenated species. Energy & Fuels, 25, 3266-3274.
Garcıa-Perez, M., Chaala, A., & Roy, C. (2002). Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 65, 111-136.
Garcia-Perez, M., Wang, X. S., Shen, J., Rhodes, M. J., Tian, F., Lee, W.J., Wu, H., & Li, C.Z. (2008). Fast pyrolysis of oil Mallee woody biomass: effect of temperature on the yield and quality of pyrolysis products. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, 1846-1854.
Kisner, C. (2008). Climate Change in Thailand: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies. Retrieved from http:// climate.org/archive/topics/international-action/thailand.htm.
Li, D., Briens, C., & Berruti, F. (2015). Improved lignin pyrolysis for phenolic production in a bubbling bed reactor – Effect of bed materials. Bioresource Technology, 189, 7-14.
Lorenzetti, C., Conti, R., Fabbri, D., & Yanik, J. (2016). A comparative study on the catalytic effect of H-ZSM5 on upgrading of pyrolysis vapors derived from lignocellulosic and proteinaceous biomass. Fuel, 166, 446-452.
Nilsen, M. H., Antonakou, E., Bouzga, A., Lappas, A., Mathisen, K., & Stöcker, M. (2007). Investigation of the effect of metal sites in Me–Al-MCM-41 (Me = Fe, Cu or Zn) on the catalytic behavior during the pyrolysis of wooden based biomass. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 105, 189-203.
Mante, O. D., Agblevor, F. A., & McClung, R. (2013). A study on catalytic pyrolysis of biomass with Y-zeolite based FCC catalyst using response surface methodology. Fuel, 108, 451-464.
Meesuk, S., Cao, J.P., Sato, K., Ogawa, Y., & Takarada, T. (2011). Fast pyrolysis of rice husk in a fluidized bed: effects of the gas atmosphere and catalyst on bio-oil with a relatively low content of oxygen. Energy & Fuels, 25, 4113-4121.
Oasmaa, A., Källi, A., Lindfors, C.,Elliott, D. C., Springer, D., Peacocke, C., & Chiaramonti, D. (2012). Guidelines for transportation, handling, and use of fast pyrolysis bio-oil. 1. Flammability and toxicity. Energy & Fuels, 26, 3864-3873.
Oasmaa, A., Kuoppala, E., Selin, J.F., Gust, S., & Solantausta, Y. (2004). Fast pyrolysis of forestry residue and pine. 4. Improvement of the product quality by solvent addition. Energy & Fuels, 18, 1578-1583.
Oasmaa, A., van de Beld, B., Saari, P., Elliott, D. C., & Solantausta, Y. (2015). Norms, standards, and legislation for fast pyrolysis bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass. Energy & Fuels, 29, 2471-2484.
Office of agricultural economics. (2018). Agricultural Economic Information : Longan. Retrieved from http://www.oae.go.th//assets/portals/1/fileups/prcaidata/files/longan60.pdf
Paenpong, C., Inthidech, S., & Pattiya, A. (2013). Effect of filter media size, mass flow rate and filtration stage number in a moving-bed granular filter on the yield and properties of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Bioresource Technology, 139, 34-42.
Paenpong, C., & Pattiya, A. (2016). Effect of pyrolysis and moving-bed granular filter temperatures on the yield and properties of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 119, 40-51.
Park, H. J., Jeon, J.K., Suh, D. J., Suh, Y.W., Heo, H.S., & Park, Y.K. (2011). Catalytic vapor cracking for improvement of bio-oil quality. Catalysis Surveys from Asia, 15, 161-180.
Pütün, E., Uzun, B.B., & Pütün, A. E. (2006). Fixed-bed catalytic pyrolysis of cotton-seed cake: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, natural zeolite content and sweeping gas flow rate. Bioresource Technology, 97, 701-710.
Sasujit, K., Homduang, N., & Dussadee, N. (2014). The value addition of wood vinegar as a community product of sufficient agriculture knowledge center at Ban Nong Sai. Journal of community development and Life quality, 2, 125-132.
Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, S., Adhikari, S., Ravindran, H., Gupta, R. B., Fasina, O., Tu, M., & Fernando, S. D. (2010). Physiochemical properties of bio-oil produced at various temperatures from pine wood using an auger reactor. Bioresource Technology, 101, 8389-8395.
Veses, A., Aznar, M., Martínez, I., Martínez, J. D., López, J. M., Navarro, M. V., Callén, M. S., Murillo, R., & García, T. (2014). Catalytic pyrolysis of wood biomass in an auger reactor using calcium-based catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 162, 250-258.
Williams, P. T., & Horne, P. A., (1995). The influence of catalyst type on the composition of upgraded biomass pyrolysis oils. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 31, 39-61.
Yildiz, G., Pronk, M., Djokic, M., van Geem, K. M., Ronsse, F., van Duren, R., & Prins, W. (2013). Validation of a new set-up for continuous catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass coupled with vapour phase upgrading. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 103, 343-351.
Zhang, H., Xiao, R., Wang, D., Zhong, Z., Song, M., Pan, Q., & He, G. (2009). Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Fluidized Bed with Fresh and Spent Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalysts. Energy & Fuels, 23, 6199-6206.

Research Articles


How to Cite
PAENPONG, Chaturong; CHUNLUANG, Weerapun; PRATOOMCHAI, Niwat. Upgrading of Bio-oils from the Fast Pyrolysis of Longan Wood over the Low Cost Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 26, n. 4, p. 94-106, nov. 2018. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <http://www.journal.nu.ac.th/NUJST/article/view/Vol-26-No-4-2018-94-106>. Date accessed: 19 apr. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2018.26.