A 10-year Comparative Study of Organic Carbon Fractions and Carbon Storage in Soils Using Organic and Traditional Soil Management Practices in Rice Farming (Retracted)

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Suphathida Aumtong Paweenoot Pongwongkam

Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of soil management methods applied in both organic rice farming (ORF) and conventional rice farming (CRF) cultivation practices, on the amount of labile organic carbon that can easily be decomposed in the soil, or can be stored as organic carbon in the soil. The participating farmers were divided into two groups: farmers applying organic farming methods (ORF), and those utilizing conventional farming techniques (CRF). Eleven test plots were used in each group, for a total of 22 plots. Each test was replicated 3 times, making 66 physical tests, and each of 22 initial tests replicated 3 times with pseudo replication, giving a total of 99 tests. Carbon fractions analysis in the soil included total organic carbon (TOC) and labile organic carbon fractions (LOC); water soluble carbon (WSC), hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), permanganate oxidized carbon (POXC), carbon in coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM-C) and carbon in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM-C).
     The results showed that about 82% of the ORF farmers used straw waste from harvesting for fermentation, to cultivate mushrooms and to feed cattle and water buffalo, and both ORF and CRF farmers also burned the rice straw and stubble. In CRF could affect the amount labile organic carbon (LOC). The amount of various fractions of organic carbon that could easily be decomposed, or called labile organic carbon, in both ORF and CRF were analyzed at a soil depth of 0.30 cm. The results showed that the amount of TOC, WSC and HWSC in the ORF soils were much higher than in the CRF soils. Also, the amounts of POXC, CPOM-C and FPOM-C in the CRF soil were higher than in the ORF soil. A further result was that, in CRF soil, labile organic carbon constituted up to about 82% of TOC, while in the ORF soil labile organic carbon constituted only about 35% of TOC. It was also found that all forms of labile organic carbon were higher in CRF soil than in ORF with levels of CPOM-C > FPOM-C >> POXC >> HWSC > WSC. This trend was found in both CRF and ORF soils. We conclude that ORF soil management practices with regard to rice straw usage and crop residue removal affected LOC, and affects the decomposition and mineralization of the soil organic matter available as a plant nutrient. In CRF, the burning of rice straw and crop residue enhanced the amount of LOC.


Keywords: Organic rice farming, paddy soil, labile organic carbon fraction, crop residue removal

References

Aoyama, M., Angers, D. A., N’Dayegamiye, A., & Bissonnette, N. (1999). Protected organic matter in water-stable aggregates as affected by mineral fertilizer and manure applications. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 79, 419–425.
Baldock, J. A. & Smernik, R. J. (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally altered Pinus resinosa (red pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry, 33, 1093-1109.
Blagodatsky, S., Blagodatskaya, E., Yuyukina, T., & Kuzyakov, Y. (2010). Model of apparent and real priming effects: Linking microbial activity with soil organic matter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1275–1283.
Blanco-Canqui, H., & Lal, R. (2007). Soil and crop harvesting corn residue for biofuel production. Geoderm, 141, 355–362.
Borresen, T. (1999). The effect of straw management and reduced tillage on soil properties and crop yields of spring-sown cereals on two loam soils in Norway. Soil and Tillage Research, 51, 91.
Cambardella, C. A., & Elliott, E. T. (1992). Particulate soil organic matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 777–783.
Dalal, R. C., & Mayer, R. T. (1986). Long-term trends in fertility of soil under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. IV. Loss of organic carbon from different density fractions. Australian Journal Soil Research, 24, 301-309.
Fynn, R. W. S., Haynes, R. J., & O’ Connor, T. G. (2003). Burning causes long-term change in soil organic matter content of a South African grassland. Soil biological and Biochemistry, 35, 677-687.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (1995). Quality and Quality Changes in fresh fish. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Ghani, A. D., Dexter, M., & Perrott, K. W. (2003). Hot water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biological and Biochemistry, 35, 1231-1243.
Greennet. (2015). Thailand organic market. Retried from http://researchconference.kps.ku.ac.th/article_9/ index.html.
Grigal, D. F., & Ohmann, L. F. (1992). Carbon storage in upland forests of the lake states. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 935 - 943.
Haynes, R. J., & Naidu, R. (1998). Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 51, 123-137.
Haynes, J. (2000). Labile organic matter as indicator of organic matter in arable and pastoral soils in New Zealand. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33, 221-219.
John, B., Yamashita, T., Ludwig, B., & Flessa, H. (2005). Storage of organic carbon in aggregate and density fractions of silty soils under different types of land use. Geoderma, 128, 63-79.
Krull, E. S., Skjemstad, J. O., & Baldock, J. A. (2004). Functions of Soil organic matter and the effect on soil properties. Retried from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a73a/7efef0521ac68c6b45982bf8c f3e8cd8f5aa.pdf
Kuzyakov, Y. (2010). Priming effects: Interactions between living and dead organic matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1363–1371.
Leifeld, J. (2012). How sustainable is organic farming?. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 150, 121-122.
Loginow, W., Wisniewski, W., Gonet, S., & Ciescinska, B. (1987). Fractionation of organic C based on susceptibility to oxidation. Polish Journal of Soil Science, 20, 47–52.
Mikha, M. M., & Rice, C. W. (2004). Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate associated carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68, 809–816.
Nguyen, C. D., Varadachari, C., & Ghosh, K. (1990). Studies on microbial decomposition of humic substances as affected by clay-humus complexation. Indian Soil Science, 38, 738-741.
Organic Trade Association. (2006). Recent Benchmark of Thai Organic Agriculture. Retried from https://www.ota.com/news/press-releases/20066.
Schmidt, M. W. I., & Noack, A. G. (2000). Black carbon in soils and sediments: Analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 777-794.
Six, J., Conant, R., Paul, E. A., & Paustian, K. (2002) Stabilization mechanisms for soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil, 241, 155–176.
Tirol-Padre, A., & Ladha, J. K. (2004). Assessing the reliability of permanganate–oxidizable carbon as an index of soil labile carbon. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68, 969-978.
Tong, C. L., Xiao, H. A., Tang, G. Y., Wang, H. Q., Huang, T. P., & Wu, J. S. (2009). Long term fertilizer effects on organic carbon and total nitrogen and coupling relationships of C and N in paddy soils in subtropical China. Soil and Tillage Research, 106, 8-14.
Von Lutzow, M., Kogel Knabner, I., Ekschmitt, K., Matzner, E., Guggenberger, G., Marschner, B., & Flessa, H. (2006). Stabilization of organic matter in temperate soils: mechanisms and their relevance under different soil conditions e a review. European Journal of Soil Science, 57, 426-445.
Walkley, A. & Black, I. A. (1934). An Examination of degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29-37.
Weil, R. R., Islem, K. R., Stien, M. A., Gruver, J. J., & Samson-Liebig, S. E. (2003). Estimate active carbon for soil quality assessment: a simplified method for laboratory and field use. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18, 1-16.
West, T. O., & Post, W. M. (2002). Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: A global data analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1930–1946.
Whalen, J. K., Hu, Q., & Liu, A. (2003). Compost applications increase water-stable aggregates in conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67, 1842–1847.
Whittingham, M. J. (2011). The future of agri-environment schemes: biodiversity gains and ecosystem service delivery?. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 509–513.
Yan, H., Yu, Q. Zhu, Z. C., Myneni, R. B., Yan, H. M., Wang, S. Q., & Shugart, H. H. (2013). Diagnostic analysis of interannual variation of global land evapotranspiration over 1982–2011: Assessing the impact of ENSO. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, 1-15.
Zhang, J. B., Zhu, T. B., Cai, Z. C., Qin, S. W., & Müller, C. (2012). Effects of long-term repeated mineral and organic fertilizer applications on soil nitrogen transformations. European Journal of Soil Science, 63(1), 75-85.
Zhu, Z. Y., Wu, Y., Liu, S. M., Wenger, F., Hu, J., Zhang, J., & Zhang, R. F. (2016). Organic carbon flux and particulate organic matter composition in Arctic valley glaciers: examples from the Bayelva River and adjacent Kongsfjorden. Biogeosciences, 13, 975–987.

Section
Research Articles

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
AUMTONG, Suphathida; PONGWONGKAM, Paweenoot. A 10-year Comparative Study of Organic Carbon Fractions and Carbon Storage in Soils Using Organic and Traditional Soil Management Practices in Rice Farming (Retracted). Naresuan University Journal: Science and Technology (NUJST), [S.l.], v. 26, n. 4, p. 38-49, nov. 2018. ISSN 2539-553X. Available at: <http://www.journal.nu.ac.th/NUJST/article/view/Vol-26-No-4-2018-38-49>. Date accessed: 24 july 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.14456/nujst.2018.20.