Attempts to mitigate the environmental problems from heavy metal contaminated wastes by phytoremediation technique have been intensively investigated. This research was conducted to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of mixture materials (Sida soil mixed with lignite bottom ash), and uptake of copper and zinc in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) parts cultivated under laboratory conditions. The effect of copper and zinc on lettuce yields was also investigated.
Results indicated that the pH value of mixtures ranged from 6.64±0.78 to 6.89±0.98. The percentage of moisture content and organic content ranged from 10.22±0.24 to 11.85±0.54 %.and 1.86±0.85to 5.04±0.38 %, respectively. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranged from 0.31±0.03to 0.45±0.04 %, 0.45±1.35 to 0.56±1.94 %, and 0.92±0.01 to 0.94±0.03 %. In addition, the mixture contained copper and zinc ranging from 13.12±1.71to 26.13±2.30mg/kg, and 66.84±5.84to 137.74±4.13 mg/kg, respectively. It was noted that copper and zinc accumulation in mixture ratios showed a significant difference as the amount of lignite bottom ash in mixture ratios increased (P<0.05). The highest copper and zinc accumulation was found at mixture ratio of 0.6:0.4 in lettuce root (21.46 ± 5.90 mg/kg and 113.47 ± 4.13 mg/kg), followed by lettuce leaf (8.18 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 32.94 ± 7.34 mg/kg). The accumulation of both heavy metals in root and leaf of lettuces significantly related to the increasing of lignite bottom ash ratios (P<0.05). In addition, the highest lettuce yield was found at a ratio of 0.8:0.2 (1.43 ± 0.06 g/plant) and 0.6:0.4 (1.43 ± 0.03 g/plant). A significant difference in lettuce yield with the increased lignite bottom ash mixtures ranging from 0.9:0.1 to 0.6:0.4 was observed (P<0.05). The results suggest that lignite bottom ash mixtures can be used as supplementary micronutrients in soil for plants and planted lettuce at mixture ratios of 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 are not harmful for consumers since the accumulation of both heavy metals was within the Criteria of Food and Drug Administration (copper not exceeded 20 mg/kg and zinc not exceeded 100 mg/kg). Also, this plant have a potential use of phytoremediation to treat the copper and zinc contaminated land but further investigation is still required.
Agency for toxic substances and disease registry. (2005). Toxicology profile for zinc. Retrieved from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp60.pdf
Agri-Facts. (2003). Soil pH and plant nutrients. Retrieved from http://www1.agric. gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex6607
Chanhirun, C. (2013). Study of basic properties of bottom ash for road construction. J Dept. Highways. 2, 45-57.
Chardonnens, A. N., Koevoets, P. L., van Zanten, A., Schat, H., & Verkleij, J. A. (1999). Properties of enhanced tonoplast zinc transport in naturally selected zinc-tolerant Silene vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 120(3), 779-786.
Faculty of the Department of Soil Science. (1998). Manual of Fundamental Soil Science. Faculty of Soil Science. Kasetsart University. 8th edi, Bangkok: Raungtham Publishing.
Fernandes, J. C., & Henriques, F. S. (1991). Biochemical, physiological, and structural effects of excess copper in plants. The Botanical Review, 57(3), 246-273.
Furlani, A. M. C., Furlani, P. R., Bataglia, O. C., Hiroce, R., Gallo, J. R., Bernardi, J. B., ... & de Campos, H. R. (1978). Composição mineral de diversas hortaliças. Bragantia, 37(1), 33-44
Hossain, M. A., Hossain, M. Z., & Fujita, M. (2009). Stress-induced changes of methylglyoxal level and glyoxalase I activity in pumpkin seedlings and cDNA cloning of glyoxalase I gene. Aust J Crop Sci, 3(2), 53-64.
Hossain, M. A., Hasanuzzaman, M., & Fujita, M. (2010). Up-regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems by exogenous glycinebetaine and proline in mung bean confer tolerance to cadmium stress. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 16(3), 259-272.
Isgor, O. B., & Razaqpur, A. G. (2004). Finite element modeling of coupled heat transfer, moisture transport and carbonation processes in concrete structures. Cement and Concrete Composites, 26(1), 57-73.
Kabata- Pendias, A., Pendias, H. (1984). Trace elements in soils and plants. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Krutkul, T. (1988). Soil for planting. 2nd edi. Bangkok: Bundit Publishing.
Knauer, K., Behra, R., & Sigg, L. (1997). Adsorption and uptake of copper by the green alga Scenedesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 33(4), 596-601.
Lasat, M. M., Pence, N. S., Garvin, D. F., Ebbs, S. D., & Kochian, L. V. (2000). Molecular physiology of zinc transport in the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51(342), 71-79.
Marchner H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Cambridge, New York: Academic Press.
Norman, A. G. (1931). The biological decomposition of plant materials: The effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the rate of immobilisation of nitrogen by straw. Biochemical Journal, 25(5), 1779-1787.
Nurmesniemi, H., Manskinen, K., Pöykiö, R., & Dahl, O. (2012). Forest fertilizer properties of the bottom ash and fly ash from a large-sized (115 MW) industrial power plant incinerating wood-based biomass residues. J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Met.(Sofia), 47, 43-52.
Orroño, D. & Lavado, R.S. (2009). Heavy metal accumulation in Pelargonium hortorum: Effects on growth and development. Int J Bot.78, 75-82.
Papadakis, V. G. (2000). Effect of supplementary cementing materials on concrete resistance against carbonation and chloride ingress. Cement and concrete research, 30(2), 291-299.
Pichay, D. (2016). Towards a healthy plant: lecttuce. Retrieved from https://www.utoledo.edu/nsm/psrc/growers/pdf/Towards_A_Healthy_Plant-lettuc.pdf
Prasad, M. N. V. (2004). Heavy metal stress in plants. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Poon, C. S., Wong, Y. L., & Lam, L. (1997). The influence of different curing conditions on the pore structure and related properties of fly-ash cement pastes and mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 11(7-8), 383-393.
Ramesh, G. (2008). Cloning and characterization of metallothionein genes of ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Thapar University, Punjab, W.A.
Raskin, I & Ensley, B. D. (2000). Phytoremediation of toxic metals: Using plants to clean up environment. New York: Wiley-Iinterscience Publication.
Rukzon, S., & Chindaprasirt, P. (2006). Strength of ternary blended cement mortar containing Portland cement, rice husk ash and fly ash. J. Eng. Inst. Thailand, 17(2), 33-38.
Rukzon, S., Phupha, V., Ngenprom, N. (2012). The innovation of use of bottom ash on green concrete. Full report of Rajamangala University of Technology Phra nakorn Bangkok. Retrieved from http://repository.
Santos, I.C., Casali, V.W.D., Miranda, G.V. (1998). Efeitos do composto de lixourbano na produ¸c˜ao de alface. Acta Scientiarum, 20, 275-280.
Sathonsaowaphak, A., Chindaprasirt, P., & Pimraksa, K. (2009). Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168(1), 44-50.
Sharma, P., & Dubey, R. S. (2007). Involvement of oxidative stress and role of antioxidative defense system in growing rice seedlings exposed to toxic concentrations of aluminum. Plant cell reports, 26(11), 2027-2038.
Sharma, S. S., & Dietz, K. J. (2009). The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends in plant science, 14(1), 43-50.
Streeter, J. J., Kidder, G. (1997). Soils and plant nutrition. Corporative extension service. Institute of Food and Nutrition Science, University of Florida, SL. 8, 1-4.
Sungthong, D. (1996). Quantitative analysis of some heavy metals and macronutrients in composts, farm manures, and enriched soils. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, W.A.
Tejavanija, S. (2003). Heavy metals removal from metal finishing wastewater by using fly ash and bottom ash. Mahidol University, Bangkok, W.A.
Van Hoof, N. A., Koevoets, P. L., Hakvoort, H. W., Ten Bookum, W. M., Schat, H., Verkleij, J. A., & Ernst, W. H. (2001). Enhanced ATP‐dependent copper efflux across the root cell plasma membrane in copper‐tolerant Silene vulgaris. Physiologia Plantarum, 113(2), 225-232.
Villiers, F., Ducruix, C., Hugouvieux, V., Jarno, N., Ezan, E., Garin, J., ... & Bourguignon, J. (2011). Investigating the plant response to cadmium exposure by proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Proteomics, 11(9), 1650-1663.
Zhao, F. J., Lombi, E., & McGrath, S. P. (2003). Assessing the potential for zinc and cadmium phytoremediation with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant and soil, 249(1), 37-43.